Disaster management in critical infrastructures
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 333
Critical energy infrastructures must learn how to make systems more resilient and robust in the face of future uncertain and fundamental threats. Reliable electric power supply following disasters is to important to be left to the same old approaches of the past.
Keywords: power infrastructures, power system restoration, disasters in energy infrastructures
Influence of d.o.l. starting on 6000 V motor’s durability
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 335
Industrial AC cage rotor motors of nominal voltage 6000 used in power plants are started by switching direct on line. Static and dynamic stresses in the motor occurred at starting period are of highest level in the whole motor’s life. The stresses are caused by initial starting current surges in stator and rotor (squirrel cage) windings, as well as electro-dynamic vibration occurred at starting period. Proper choice and proper design of the stator windings and rotor cage is of high importance for d.o.l. started induction motors of middle and high capacity. In the paper thermal and dynamic effects of starting current for d.o.l. started motors are evaluated, examples of typical disintegrated squirrel cages showed and recommendations for motor’s exploitation given.
Keywords: cage induction motors, starting, starting damages
Possibilities and conditions necessary to extend the service life of steam turbines cast steel elements
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, s. 340
Extending of power equipment service life came into the realization stage . It is expected that after carrying out - in adequate range - the modernizing and restoring overhauls the safe service life can be extended by about 20 years. It means that the total service life of the elements not replaced earlier can exceed 350 000 running hours and about 400 000 equivalent operating hours (EOH). Elements, that are reckoned among the not replaced ones, are first of all the revitalized turbine cast steel elements that work in Polish and foreign facilities in number of more than 300. Until now, according to our knowledge, none of the revitalized elements has been taken out of service because of its technical condition. Given are the most important informations concerning revitalization technology of steam turbine cast steel elements as well as the necessity and essence of revitalization itself. Answers are given to questions whether revitalization can not bring the planned effect or how long the service life of a revitalized element will last.
Keywords: revitalization, revitalized steam turbines cast steel elements
Jerzy DOBOSIEWICZ, Ewa zbroińska-szczechura, Filip klepacki
Damages of boilers feeding pipelines system and boilers heating surface pipe coils working below the temperature limit
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 343
The majority of boilers’ elements is subject to an influence of the environment in which corrosion processes occur. Operational life of elbows depends not only on stress magnitudes but also on, acting from the inner side, expansion of corrosion processes in metal. The influence of corrosion during many years of operation can neither be avoided nor estimated. It is advisable in the designing process to determine the maximum allowable stress in an elbow and take into consideration the corrosion processes.
Keywords: boiler feeding pipelines, pipeline elbows, corrosion processes
Risk of sudden brittle damages of low- and medium-pressure feed water pipelines
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 348
It is reminded about threats connected with a sudden, explosive pipeline damage in feed water systems. Presented are basic technical solutions of these pipelines for 120 and 200 MW power units. Discussed is the carried on by Pro Novum diagnostics of feed water pipelines. Shown are exemplary results of tests and diagnostic measurements as well as the results of a sudden, explosive damage of a feed water pipeline.
Keywords: feed water pipeline, pipeline damages, pipeline diagnostics
Sonia JAREMA-SUCHOROWSKA, Jacek WARTAK
Projects of building and modernization of flue gas desulphurization installations co-financed with EU funds (projects financial aspects, quantifying of ecological effects)
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 351
„Energopomiar” Sp. z o.o. takes an active part in raising funds for realization of pro-ecological investments in the power industry. On the basis of experience gained during participation in elaboration of such projects, presented are the basic elements of financial, economic and environmental feasibility study of this venture. Discussed are financial, economic, susceptibility and risk analyses. Given are examples of ecological effect quantifying method.
Keywords: pro-ecological investments in the power industry, raising funds, feasibility study
Analysis of acoustic problems as an element of investment process
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 356
Presented are, on the examples taken from research practice, various problems and situations connected with noise emission in the environment. They can occur in various stages of new objects and installations investment processes. Special attention is paid to issues referring to preparation and carrying out of warranty measurements and local conditionings concerning investors and providers of objects or installations.
Keywords: investment processes in power industry, acoustic problems
Wet FGD installation wastewater treatment plant
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 360
Presented is a developed technical system of an installation for wet FGD wastewater treatment in electric power plants. Described are successive treatment stages and various kinds of technologies used in the treatment process.
Keywords: wet FGD installations, wastewater treatment plants, wastewater treatment technologies
Sonia JAREMA-SUCHOROWSKA, Barbara KUCZAK
Methods for conditioning of ashes and slags modified in consequence of implementation of ecological projects
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 364
Present progress in power industry, connected with implementation of more and more rigorous environmental requirements, brings significant changes in quality of combustion by-products in electric power stations and CHP stations. Described is influence of new dust-gas emission in the atmosphere (biomass co-combustion, desulphurizing, denitrification) reduction technologies on quality of ashes and slags. Presented are possibilities to process these wastes by way of physical and chemical processes that enable their adequate conditioning (aggregates, suspensions, solid state mixtures) with the aim to further utilization.
Keywords: electric power stations and CHP stations, ashes and slags conditioning, ecology
Smart Grid tools. Load control systems
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 370
Global energy demand grows in the whole world. Estimated is that the rate of growth amounts to 2,2% per year what means that the present global energy consumption equal to 20 300 TWh will reach 33000 TWh in the year 2030. This rising tendency initiates a challenge to more effective energy utilization that in many countries means modernization of the ageing energy infrastructure. Optimization of energy systems should comprise many elements: renewable energy sources (which through application of energy storages should be better integrated with the system); making use of small, decentralized energy suppliers; energy transmission generating lower losses and inteligent energy utilization. Dealing with these challenges needs a network of elastic, „thinking” infrastructure that would direct energy exactly where it is needed. A solution of this kind is the Inteligent Power Network - Smart Grid. But when speaking of the new, you must not forget the old - such already existing tools, which can successfully be applied for realization of inteligent networks, are the systems of load control through power network, known in Poland as the SCA - Acoustic Frequency Control.
Keywords: Inteligent Power Network - Smart Grid, load control systems, Acoustic Frequency Control
Fostering the sustainable usage of biomass in Central Europe countries
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 373
In order to fulfil the EU obligations defined in the Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2009/28/EC Poland should intensify use of biomass for energy purposes. The article presents 4BIOMASS project with objective to foster sustainable usage of renewable energy from biomass and increase the share of renewables in total primary energy supply in Central Europe. Discussed the “Biogas – Targets, Potential & Promotion within Central Europe” conference objectives held under the 4BIOMASS project in April 2011 in Warsaw as well as tasks of the Central European Bioenergy Centres – CEBC nominated during the conference.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, biomass, biogas
Hubert E. ZADROŻNIAK
Legal proceedings in cases concerning energy regulation - selected dilemmas and postulates de lege ferenda
Energetyka 2011, nr 6, p. 376
Presented are lawsuit problems regulated by art. 47946 - 47956 of the civil procedure code. The aim of this elaboration is presentation and analysis of some key problems arising during legal proceedings commenced in consequence of appealing against a decision of the President of Energy Regulatory Office. There is proved that for civil proceedings were brought cases which in other legal systems are not subject to that kind of proceeding and whose legal nature does not require passing them on to the civil proceeding, what is also confirmed by the quoted opinions of some leading science representatives.
Keywords: energy regulation, legal basis for energy regulation, civil procedure code