Herbert Leopold GABRYŚ
Electric power industry in Poland 2011. Selected results and challenges with special regard to problems resulting from the EU climate and energy package
Discussed are general conclusions resulting from the present and the foreseen structure of electric energy production with special regard to problems resulting from the so-called „EU climate package”
Keywords: the EU energy policy, the EU climate package, impact of the climate package on the Polish electric power industry attitude to the problem
Solar storm on interplanetary scale – threats and chances to control it
Enormous fluctuations of magnetic field in the Earth’s magnetosphere are causing immense electric current flows in the upper atmosphere and inducing current surges in infrastructural networks resulting in massive planetary blackouts. In the 2012-2013 period the Sun enters solar maximum.
Keywords: solar activity, magnetosphere, fluctuations, current surges, planetary blackouts
Technical solutions for high-voltage AC substations
Presented are modern tendencies in power network building, showing technical solutions used in high-voltage AC substations. Made is systemization of arrangements and shown are development tendencies in substation technologies.
Keywords: electric power networks, substations, power network building
Tadeusz FULCZYK, Eugeniusz GŁOWACKI, Janusz ZDEB, Leszek WOJDANOWICZ, Adam KOZERA
Influence of citric acid solution application as an additive to absorber suspension on flue gas wet desulphurising installation
Presented are results of tests carried out on a flue gas wet desulphurising installation (WDI) in TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A.-Oddział Elektrownia Łaziska. The research was partially financed within the framework of a strategic project „Advanced energy aquisition technologies – Task Nr 1”. During the WDI research with the given citric acid concentrations in the range of 200-1200 ppm, apart from SOx reduction in flue gas efficiency, there were also checked SO2, SO3, CO, NOx, HCl, HF emission levels as well as flue gas dustiness and the quality and consumption of the process media. Tests showed that application of citric acid as and additive to the suspension solution in the concentration range of 300-1200 ppm results in lowering of SOx concentration level in flue gas in the WDI absorber and increases the flue gas SOx desulphurising efficiency as compared to a WDI operating with the application of limestone dust suspension only. Achievement of low values of SO2 concentration and dustiness in flue gas with the application of citric acid as an absorber suspension additive is very promising and gives an assumption to think that in future we will be able to use it to separate CO2 from the cleaned flue gases.
Keywords: citric acid, decreasing of SOx concentration level, flue gas wet desulphurising installation
Physicochemical properties of fuels from renewable sources
At present, the energy biomass utilization is the only way and a chance for Poland to meet the obligations referring to production of energy from renewable sources and imposed by the EU on its member countries. Apart from accessibility and prices, also some legal conditionings, imposing on energy producers the obligation of combusting only the defined kinds of biomass, have an influence on the selection of kinds of biomass to be combusted. Presented are testing results of several biomass kinds coming from various sources and variability ranges of physicochemical properties of the hitherto tested biomass kinds utilized for energy purposes as well as the influence of these prameters on the process of combustion or co-combustion.
Keywords: biomass from various sources, physicochemical parameters, combustion
Protection against blackouts in industrial enterprises as one of the key elements of energy safety guarantee
Effects of a blackout can affect electric distribution companies, industrial enterprises as well as individual consumers. Big material losses can be caused when industrial enterprises are deprived of electric energy and heating. In extreme cases it can lead to damaging of technological lines and to life- and health-threatening. Hence the task of preparing of industrial enterprises, sensitive to the effects of feeding failure and being at the same time important for the state economy, to the defence against blackouts should be one of the preferred aims of such an enterprise energy safety policy. Presented are basic rules concerning an industrial enterprise electric power system defence against blackouts and the corresponding technological aspects.
Keywords: blackout, defence rules of electric power systems, industrial enterprise
Municipal wastes are not fuel – combustion of this matter poisons the atmosphere with chemical compounds. Municipal waste combustion is not a utilization!
Presented are ecological, technological and economic arguments to back up theses contained in the article. Ascertained is that building of an incineration plant shatters all prospects of a real recycling of wastes and their further economic utilization.
Keywords: municipal wastes, waste combustion
Marek PILAWSKI, Bogdan FLISIEWICZ, Jerzy PUCEK
Syngas from waste as a source of clean energy
Discussed is the possiblity to apply syngas for electric energy production. Critical reference is made to the prevalent opinions about making use of biogas plants or municipal waste incinerators.
Keywords: wastes energy utilization, syngas, liquid metal generators
Regulations and realities of illegal electricity usage detection
Expressed is an opinion that establishing the penalty fee for stealing electric energy by bypassing the measurement and clearance system in the form of a lump-sum is unjust and should not be introduced.
Keywords: illegal electricity usage, detection methods, penalties
Unlawful covenants in energy sales contracts
Expressed is an opinion that many contract patterns used by electric power firms are shaping consumers rights and duties in the way which is in contradiction to good practices and glaringly violates the consumers’ interests. That creates the possibility, in relation to undertakers applying patterns including such resolutions, to start proceedings concerning practices violating the collective consumer interests. Alas, an end-user awareness of the range of his rights and duties in relationship with electric power firms, functioning very often in conditions of natural monopoly, increases in situations where covenants act against these end-users.
Keywords: energy sales contracts, covenants
Power easement – landowner claims
Ascertained is, that after enforcement of the Transmission Corridor Act the owners of real estates which part is occupied by transmission facilities, could only count on compensation calculated according to the Act regulations.
Keywords: power easement, landowner claims, compensations
Piotr DZIERWA, Jan TALER
Heating optimization of thick pressure vessels with openings
Presented is a method for determining time-optimum medium temperature changes. The heating of pressure elements will be conducted in such way, that the circumferential stresses caused by pressure and fluid temperature variations at the edge of the opening and the point of stress concentration would not exceed the allowable values. The optimum fluid temperature changes assume a ramp form. It is possible to increase the fluid temperature stepwise at the beginning of the heating process and then increase the fluid temperature with the constant rate. Allowing stepwise fluid temperature increase at the beginning of heating ensures that heating time of a thick-walled component is shorter than the heating time resulting from calculations according to the EN 12952-3 European Standard.
Keywords: steam boilers, boiler drums, heating optimization
Measurement Data Cloud Processing
Only a well defined and precised data processing business service can help to achieve a measurable financial effect. Measurement Data Cloud Processing is an excellent instrument for energy market balancing.
Keywords: energy market balancing, data processing business service