CAES – Electric Energy Accumulation System
One of the methods of electric energy accumulation in a power system is accumulation of energy in the form of compressed air – CAES. Presented is general conception of intermediate electric energy accumulation in the form of CAES, historical outline and various technological solutions. Additionally presented are the existing power plants Huntorf and McIntosh.
Keywords: CAES, accumulation of electric energy
Standards the range of electric energy technical parameters and in the quality of customer service as well as the consequences for disregarding them for system operators
Presented are standards in the range of electric energy quality parameters, parameters connected with reliability anin d certainty of electricity delivery as well as economic consequences of disregarding the above for power system operators. Given are the customer service standards required from these enterprises and shown are consequences of improper service. Presented works are realized in the frames of the ordered PBZ-MEiN-1/2/2006 „National energy security” research project by the Consortium of Universities of Technology in Gdańsk, Silesia, Warsaw and Wrocław.
Keywords: electric energy, quality, reliability, certainty of delivery, power system operator, law
Andrzej KOWAL, Dawid TALER
Measurement methods of heat load in steam boiler combustion chambers
The measurement of a heat load in the way of temperature measurement in three points of a waterwall tube is not so easy for practical realization because of determination of the heat transfer coefficient on an inner surface of the waterwall tube. It has a considerable impact on the measured temperature of the tube end face and the centre of the fin as well as on the temperature difference between the tube end face and the fin centre. Eccentric thermometric inserts as the heat load measurement tools seem to be more suitable because of the possibility to install several thermoelements in the zone subject to the biggest heat load. As the inserts do not perfectly fit to the waterwall tube shape they get dirty in the same way as the waterwall tubes do. Gardon meters are very sensitive to the non-uniform dirtying of the measuring sensors (discs) so the heat load determined by them can be burdened with a big error.
Keywords: steam boilers, heat load of combustion chambers, heat load measurements
Distributed control of voltages and reactive power
Ensuring proper levels of voltages and voltage stability is, apart from active power balancing, one of the most important tasks belonging to system operators (TSO and DSO). Described is application of control algorithm based on nose curves of dependency between voltage and reactive power. Network analysis is divided into tasks for paralelly working controllers installed in the network nods. To perform the control process, the distributed automation system Ovation is used known from application in many Polish power plants.
Keywords: reactive power, voltage stability, distributed control
SEFAKO – innovations in power industry. SEFAKO boiler island in the frames of SFK300 strategy
Fabryka Kotłów SEFAKO S.A., placed in Sędziszów, in vicinity of Jędrzejów in Świetokrzyskie Voivodeship and belonging to Polimex-Mostostal Group, is one of the five biggest power boiler producers in Europe. Its human resource and production potential allows realization of complete boiler installations, starting from making the design, then producing the devices and ending with the assembly of a ready installation. SEFAKO is offering steam and water boiler units used in industrial and commercial power engineering as well as in the so-called small power production – fired by various solid fuels like coal, biomass and wastes, including the municipal ones. SEFAKO is also the leading producer of waste heat boilers (HRSG) for gas fired blocks as well as of pressure elements of all kinds for boilers fired by solid, liquid or gas fuels.
Keywords: steam and water boilers, designing and production, Fabryka Kotłów SEFAKO
Waldemar OLECH, Daniel PAWŁOWSKI
20 years of ZPBE ENERGOPOMIAR-ELEKTRYKA. Activity of the Transformer and Insulation test Team
Presented is the 20 years’ activity of the ZPBE Energopomiar-Elektryka Transformer and Insulation test Team in diagnostic investigations of power transformers and their insulation. Discussed is the range of these investigations and the applied measuring and test equipment. Presented is an outline of the past and future directions of research and measurements.
Keywords: diagnostics of transformers and insulation, ZPBE Energopomiar-Elektryka Gliwice activity
Grzegorz SZERSZEŃ, Maciej SETKIEWICZ, Franciszek WITOS, Zbigniew OPILSKI, Zbigniew GACEK, Marian URBAŃCZYK
The new generation computer system for measuring and testing the location and description of partial discharge in power oil transformers by means of acoustic emission method
Presented is designed and built by the authors a computerised measurement system dedicated to localization and description of partial discharges in power oil transformers with the use of acoustic emission method. The acoustic emission signals measurement system has 8 slotted lines and ensures monitoring of signals and real time data registration in 20-1000 kHz frequency band in both laboratory and real conditions. Presented is the author’s analysing system covering basic and advanced analyses of registered data. In the frames of the advanced data analysis the defined by the authors descriptors are calculated, descriptor maps are determined on transformer side walls as well as localization of partial discharges sources is made using the authors’ method of signal advancement level.
Keywords: power transformers, partial discharges, partial discharges localization system
Sławomir FILIP, Adam RZECZKOWSKI, Paweł WARCZYŃSKI
Operation management of long-term working power transformers
Presented are problems connected with operation of power transformers that have been working in the Polish power system for the last tens of years. Analysed are the occurring anomalies, faults and failures relating to the working time of this equipment. Mentioned are the being in use diagnostic tools for evaluation of transformers’ technical condition and qualifying them to procedures that can extend their lifetime. Described are experiences connected with drying of a transformer paper insulation and regeneration of electro-insulating oil in the place of a transformer installation. Given are practical examples of taken up activities.
Keywords: power transformers, diagnostics of long-operated transformers, transformer oil regeneration
Halina OLEJNICZAK, Teresa BUCHACZ, Bożena BEDNARSKA
Corrosive sulphur in transformer oils – the problem that is still present
Described is the situation of transformers in the domestic power industry. Given are examples of transformer faults as well as corrosion prevention methods and their results in a long time interval. Presented is Energopomiar experience in regeneration process supervising, the program of checking tests and practical examples.
Keywords: power transformers, transformer oils, sulphur corrosion
Building of nuclear power stations in Poland – legal regulations
Building of a nuclear power station in Poland is a complex problem which has been holding the society’s interest for tens of years. In administrative proceeding, necessary for realization of power nuclear industry investments, many differences in comparison with other investment and building processes can be seen. It allows us to draw a conclusion that proceeding in nuclear industry cases is a procedure of a specific character.
Keywords: nuclear power plants, legal bases to build nuclear power plants, legal regulations in the Polish law
Andrzej ROZWADOWSKI, Teresa ROZWADOWSKA, Justyna KULIGA
Ignition temperature and other energy parameters of carbonizates from selected types of biomass and hard coal
Presented are research results of selected energy parameters of carbonizates obtained in laboratory conditions from forest, agrarian, agro-food industry wastes and energy crops biomass. The chars were obtained in the way of biomass pyrolysis in 400 and 600 °C. During the research some parameters, that are routinely assessed in the frames of technical analysis of solid fuels, were determined i.e. the contents of moisture, ash and volatile matter as well as their calorific value. Also the ignition temperature of carbonizates in three atmospheres differentiated with regards to oxygen contents was measured.
Keywords: biomass, hard coal, pyrolysis, carbonizates, ignition temperature