Szymon CIUKAJ, Mateusz TYMOSZUK
Research on the influence of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) technology application on an acid dew point temperature in pulverized fuelfired boilers
Presented is the influence of application of the SNCR nitric oxide emission reduction secondary method in power boilers on the flue gas acid dew point temperature. The injection of considerable amount of process water, accompanying NOx reactions with ammonia or urea, has in task to ensure the proper range of flue gas temperature i.e. of the so-called temperature window. In pulverized coal-fired boilers the flue gas temperature range at the furnace outlet may vary depending on actual boiler load, output of each individual mill and their technical condition. Due to changing firing conditions the actual amount of process water and the reagent also changes. The operating experience shows that for achieving the proper flue gas temperature it is needed to use up to 15 000 kg/h of process water. The injected water does not take part in NOx reduction reactions but when vaporizing it lowers the reaction environment temperature to the required level. The brought into the power boiler additional stream of moisture intensifies the corrosion hazard in the way of raising up of the water dew point temperature. Presented deliberations focus on the problem of low-temperature corrosion occurring in pulverized fuel-fired power boilers. Presented is the dependance between the water dew point temperature and efficiency of the SNCR installation determined on the basis of calculations and measurements done on power boilers with implemented SNCR technology. Confirmed is the linear dependence illustrating the rise of the water dew point together with increasing the process water stream in SNCR installation. Because of the low H2SO4 vapour partial pressure, the acid dew point temperature exceeds the water dew point one, determining in the same way the lowest acceptable flue gas temperature and, as a result, affecting the boiler efficiency. The difference between the acid and water dew point temperatures (Δtr = tr – twr) is, in most cases, unlikely to exceed 15 K, but together with the increasing stream of injected process water the low-temperature
corrosion hazard also rises.
Keywords: pulverized fuel-fired power boilers, NOx emission reduction method, acid dew point temperature
Jurij WARECKI, Michał GAJDZICA
Breakdown in an industrial network system as a result of a phase-to-phase fault
In 6 kV heavy industry networks the need to artificially increase the value of the fault impedance causes, among the others, mounting of current limiting reactors and increasing complexity of a distribution substation construction. Presented is the analysis of a MV industrial power network breakdown caused by two-phase fault in one of the outgoing bays of a 6 kV main distribution substation. Investigation of the breakdown’s causes and its results was carried out on the basis of available materials and the breakdown protocol.
Keywords: 6 kV industrial electric networks, 6 kV network breakdown, two-phase fault
Transitional national plan as a derogation mechanism resulting from Industrial Emissions Directive
The Industrial Emissions Directive (Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions) introduced a number of very substantial modifications of the hitherto existing regulation concerning the integrated environment protection. The most important changes concern considerable sharpening of emission standards of sulphur dioxide, nitric oxides and dusts from energy generation objects. Legal conditionings and premises to make use of the PPK (Transistional National Plan) evoke many doubts about their interpretation. It would be advisable to publish as quick as possible the executive regulations and pass the rules implementing and interpreting the regulations of the Directive 2010/75/EU.
Keywords: EU Industrial Emissions Directive, transitional national plan, derogation mechanism
Control of an extra resistance value in a wound rotor induction generator (WRIG) circuit
Considered is a control system of an extra resistance value in a rotor circuit of an asynchronous ring generator used in wind turbines. In a laboratory-built system the wind turbine is replaced by a controlled drive equipped with a DC motor. A comparison of the results obtained from the laboratory system and from the simulation control system model will be the basis for realization of extremal control algorithms. In this case, a knowledge of a wind turbine characteristcs will be needed.
Keywords: wind turbines, asynchronous generators, extra resistance in a rotor circuit
Zbigniew PLUTECKI, Sławomir SZYMANIEC
Influence of microclimate on partial discharges (PD) activity in electric machines working under industrial operational conditions
Presented are analyses results of microclimate influence on PD activity in electric machines. Determined are mutual correlations characterizing influence of every microclimate parameter on PD emission. The determined, by Pearson’s method, values of mutual correlation coefficients provide us with informations on quality of these dependencies. There is a possibility of PD emission reduction by providing temperature and atmosphere humidity on the level favourable for reduction of PD activity. For the tested machine there were determined the advisable microclimate parameters with which the PD emission should not exceed 25% of the present range of PD activity changes. Providing of microclimatic conditions in the given range will, in the Authors’ opinion, considerably allow to elongate failure-free operating time of the motor. Attention is paid to proper functioning of electric machines cooling systems. There is proved, on the basis of the carried out tests, that in rooms where machines work it comes to intensive thermal and flow phenomena as a result of motors work and external influences. Evaluation of electric machines insulation ageing degree with the use of PD method requires keeping methodological correctness.
Keywords: electric machines, partial discharges (PD), microclimate influence on PD
Verification of an index method for assesment of methane emission coming from hard coal in methane coal mines in Poland
Presented are results of a thorough analysis of methods for assessment of methane quantity emitted by the Polish hard coal mines. An advantage was taken of the detailed data concerning methane-bearing capacity of the exploited coal seams as well as of the amount of methane emitted into mine workings. On the basis of the proposed assessment method, specific for methane coal mines, emission values and methane emission factors in the years 2001 – 2010 are obtained.
Keywords: methane coal mines in Poland, methane emission, methane emission assessment methods
Michał BIAŁECKI, Radosław IZAKIEWICZ, Antonina KIELECZAWA, Piotr PIETRAS, Roman SKAKOWSKI, Wojciech SZUBERT, Edward ZIAJA
MASTER Automation System in the complex service of industrial objects
MASTER Automation System is an entirely Polish system elaborated in the Institute. It is being currently updated and optimized in the range of hardware and software. Apart from an unlimited ability to extend the amount of standard communication links, it will enable application of any Institute’s protocols. It ensures sufficient resources and mechanisms for an object complex automation as well as for creation of heterogenous installations through easy integration with other producents’ systems.
Keywords: automation system, automation of industrial objects, optimization
Jerzy BIELAWSKI, Wojciech SZUBERT
MASTER System development
Described is the process of elaboration, characteristic features and development elements of MASTER Automation System as the only Polish automation system dedicated for control, operation and visualization of installations used for generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy.
Keywords: electric power industry, automation systems, operation and control of processes in electric power industry
Jacek KIERNICKI, Grzegorz BAŁUKA
Application of electronic energy meters for detection and localization of illegal electricity usage
The volume of financial losses of power distributors caused by illegal energy usage justifies seeking a method which can help to quickly and effectively uncover such instances and localize places of electrical energy theft. Application of the systems and smart metering devices gives us possibility of a remote, automatic detection and increases the efficiency of activities aimed at reduction of power losses caused by illegal electricity usage. The original „voltage method of detection and localization of anomalies in measurements” in the low voltage distribution grids, presented here and elaborated in the Institute of Power Systems Automation Ltd., uses for localization of measurement anomalies places i.e. at the same time the places of illegal ectricity usage, the differences between nodal voltage values calculated on the basis of a power flow analysis and the ones obtained from energy meters. The proposed method facilitates detection and localization of illegal energy usage places but taking legal action against perpetrators is the responsibility of the distributor.
Keywords: electrical energy, illegal electricity usage, low voltage grid, electrical energy measurement, AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure)
Grzegorz BAŁUKA, Jacek KIERNICKI,
Intelligent System for Measurement and Assessment of Electrical Energy Quality (ISPOJEE) of the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) type
Fast progress of the PMU technology allows realization of totally new and highly efficient systems of monitoring and supervising of power systems in a real time. Such system of synchrophasor data processing enables, when needed, instant generation of alarm signals and taking measures against the noticed failures. The PMU technology is widely applied in detecting abnormal states of a power system work, identifying the cases of voltage stability disturbances, in identification of voltage and current measurements malfunctions (state estimation) and in protecting the system elements against the results of disturbances. Presented is the scope of PMU applications and potential effects of their implementations. The original PMU device – ISPOJEE (Intelligent System for Measurement and Assessment of Electrical Energy Quality) – was theoretically developed and realized as a prototype in the Institute of Power System Automation Ltd. in Wrocław. Enclosed are basic assumptions and the description of main parts of the ISPOJEE system.
Keywords: PMU, power system, monitoring, control, supervision
Evaluation method of energy efficiency parameters in national regions
Presented is the method for evaluation of energy efficiency parameters in national regions in a chosen time perspective. It is an evaluation method based on an expert knowledge – estimated are selected energy consumption subsectors or technologies applied in a national region, and three basic criteria are used for this purpose: technical/ technological potential as well as costs conditionings and local market/social circumstances. The method, implemented in Excel, enables projection and simulation of
energy efficiency parameters, amount of saved energy as well as the trends in energy consumption in a selected national region.
Keywords: energy efficiency, regional efficiency evaluation, energy efficiency simulation method
Jerzy TRZESZCZYŃSKI, Łukasz MAGIERA
Diagnostics first, overhaul next
Irrespective of the overhaul strategy, the knowledge concerning diagnostics should be the basis for planning of the overhaul range. It is the main requirement, meeting of which will guarantee execution of the overhaul in a range adequate to the current technical condition of the appliance and the operational expectations. Time and overhaul range are, apart from the quality of a repair and further assembly, the most important factors decisive for the overhaul costs. Pro Novum is just preparing the Overhaul Planning Module as one of the advanced functions of the LM System PRO information
Keywords: diagnostics of appliances, overhaul planning, Pro Novum LM System PRO
Wojciech MURZYNOWSKI, Marian RYBAK, Radosław STANEK
Diagnostic system for modernized units 200 MW in Energa Group
More than 200 000 hours of operating time of thermal and mechanical appliances in Electric Power Station Ostrołęka, a change in asset management organization and a change in the model of carrying out the overhaul and diagnostic services created the need of implementing the Diagnostic System integrated with thermal and mechanical appliances of 200 MW power units in the ENERGA Elektrownie Ostrołęka SA with the aim to ensure keeping the production assets in high availability and technical efficiency with the optimum level of costs. The system carries out analyses of current technical condition of appliances in online mode and generates periodic reports about this condition, containing conclusions and recommendations of Pro Novum experts. The Diagnostic System will support the safe functioning of appliances during their lengthened operating time.
Keywords: ENERGA Elektrownie Ostrołęka SA, 200 MW power units modernization, diagnostic system
Paweł GAWRON, Sylwia DANISZ
Changes in the scope of diagnostic tests of selected elements of boilers working in a co-firing conditions
The need to meet environmental requirements and financial benefits achieved from burning of ecological fuels in energy generation units, resulted in a fact that the process of coal and biomass co-combustion in boilers became a routine attitude to operation of power units. A change in type of a fuel, in comparison with the primarily assumed one, causes that some boiler elements, e.g. heated surfaces, are operated under definitely different, usually worse, conditions from the designed ones. Deterioration of these conditions results, first of all, in reduction of operational life and increase in failure frequency, often in areas where damages were originally a marginal phenomenon. This situation entails the need to adapt the range and frequency of diagnostic inspections of selected boiler elements with reference to their real working conditions.
Keywrods: power boilers, biomass co-combustion, diagnostic inspection range
Ewald GRZESICZEK, Sławomir RAJCA
Revitalizaion of cast-steel elements of steam turbines – no fault technology
During the last 20 years Pro Novum Sp. z o.o. and ZRE Katowice S.A. have revitalized more than 200 steel cast elements of 30-360 MW turbines. The earliest revitalized elements have been working with no failures for more than 100 000 hours. It is assumed that after carrying out suitable inspections and small repairs they will be able to work for about another 100 000 hours. Until now, there have been no technically justified cases of impossibility to realize the revitalization. Also, no technically justified complaints have been lodged at any of the above mentioned companies.
Keywords: steam turbines, cast steel elements, revitalization
Biomass potential and its energy utilization in the Central European countries
Biomass is now one of the main sources of renewable energy for generation of heat and electric energy as well as for transportation purposes in the Central Europe Region and its utilization grows rapidly. Presented is the biomass potential and its energy use in the Region countries and outlined are market tendencies connected with biomass trade. All countries of the Region have significant potential of biomass acquired from forests, agriculture and wastes. Sustainable use of this potential and further development of the biomass market is now the priority for the Central European countries.
Keywords: biomass potential, energy utilization of biomass, biomass trade, the Region of Central European countries