Future of conventional part polish power sector. How do we co-create and implement EU strategy referring to power sector?
Since entering EU, Poland should both co-create and realize such strategy. Present and possible to forecast situation of Polish power sector indicates that the number of problems is growing. This refers to the future of generation part power sector first, but to the stability of power engineering sector and national base of services as well – modernizations and especially building of new power units are not accompanied by polonization of know-how in a necessary scope.
Keywords: future of conventional part polish power sector
Herbert Leopold GABRYŚ
Power industry in Poland 2015
...global scale energy generation overshadowed by the EU II Climate and Energy Package
Discussed are prospects of power industry development on global scale at the background of the recently adopted II Climate and Energy Package and the report of the International Energy Agency containing projections of the world energy trends through 2040. Attention is called to the fact that, as it results from global trends, the rivalry between solid fuels and renewable sources energy generation will remain unresolved mainly because of differentiation in social and economic development as well as in energy resources allocations. Ascertained is also that if it does not come to a quick global scale agreement, concerning adoption of environment protection philosophy within the limits and on the scale of costs of the carried out openly or in the veiled form the EU economy decarbonization policy, there is a risk of its gradual competitiveness loss. It will result from the growing economic costs and in the long run it may lead to gradual marginalization.
Keywords: effects of the EU Climate and Energy Package, prospects of global energy generation, prospects differentiation
Blanka WILK, Jarosław ZUWAŁA, Grażyna WINNICKA
LABIOMEN – „start-up” at the scale of 45 TWh needs
Presented is organization and substantive activity of the Supervised Countrywide Laboratory Network (SCLN) LABIOMEN which is one of significant attainments in the aquis of the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal in the field of cooperation between science and industry. It makes a very good example of how to connect development and scientific excellence in the range of analysis of solid fuels used for energy generation and power industry needs, concerning quality control of combusted fossil fuels and biomass as well as of heavy oil and furnace refuses. The activity of the Network was inextricably linked with the Institute activities referring to authentication of generation installations and to settlement procedures for renewable energy produced in processes of biomass combustion and co-combustion. Elektrownia Opole was the first one in Poland to obtain the certificate of origin for electricity generated from biomass and it was the Institute that provided this company the above described advisory services in the range of giving opinions on installations and settlement procedures. Improvement of knowledge in the field of biomass quality parameters has contributed to better assessment of biomass ash components influence on power installations and the scale of its potential adverse impact. Gases generated during combustion of mixture of coal and various forms of biomass were subjected to thermal decomposition and further analysis of their quantity and chemical composition with the use of gravimetric techniques and the accompanying chromatography. Such large scale development of expert and analytical knowledge connected with biomass energy generation woud not be possible with no practical experience referring to biomass combustion and co-combustion while this would in turn have no chance for such dynamic development without the created analytical systems enabling biomass quality assessment for settlement procedures. Ascerteined is also that no matter what future of biomass combustion and co-combustion is, being the consequence of changes in supporting methods of renewable energy generation, the gained by power companies great wealth of multi-directional experience concerning application of this fuel for energy generation will surely make a permanent contribution of the SCLN LABIOMED to the development of this part of economy that deals with production, storage, quality control and safety aspects of technological biomass application for this purpose.
Keywords: biomass combustion and co-combustion, renewable energy, laboratory tests
Influence of mechanical impact of wind turbines on integrity of transmission systems infrastructure
Discussed is the impact of wind energy sources on the work and running of national power systems. It concerns following areas: the electric one – resulting from sources cooperation with a power system, the balance one – resulting from the fact of covering the demand for power and electric energy by wind energy sources, and finally the mechanical one – connected with mechanical impact of wind turbines on a network infrastructure elements. The above mentioned problems must be taken into account during elaboration of guidelines for wind turbines location in the vicinity of transmission infrastructure. The results of analyses made by PSE SA show that the distance between a wind turbine and a network infrastructure should not be less than at least 3,5 times of the turbine rotor diameter. Otherwise, one should take into account negative results of potential impact of the described elements on a power infrastructure.
Keywords: national power system, transmission networks, wind turbines
Natalia SZEWCZUK, Jerzy Głuch
Neural modeling of regenerative heat exchanger in a steam-turbine power plant
Presented are possibilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) application with the aim to simulate the work of regenerative heat exchangers in a condensing power plant. The created model of exchangers’ work in variable operating conditions can be applied in diagnostic tests of these installations and in the whole power plant system as well. There we can also find an introduction to the issue of ANNs, a description of such network used to model a heat exchanger’s work and a characteristics of measurement data used in an ANN training process. Described are also obtained effects and the resulting conclusions.
Keywords: thermal power plant, heat exchanger, neural modeling
Marek SYSKO, Marek RZĄSA
Application of aerial lifts for works on 15 - 400 kV live lines
Energetyka 2015, nr 6, p. 409
The offered by Kob-Crane Montaże aerial lifts allow wider application of live line works technology that makes use of several working methods for realization of one technology including the so-called „combined” one. Over the past few years the company’s offer has been extended by a robotized, automatic lift for operational works on high and ultra high voltage substations. In the field of aerial lifts the Kob-Crane Montaże Company cooperates very closely with FRANCE ELEVATEUR implementing in the Polish market new application possibilities of specialized and highly mechanized equipment.
Keywords: aerial lifts, live line working technologies, automatized lifts
Potential and real places of pipeline creep damages
Damages of thick-wall elements as a result of advanced creep processes are nothing new in power industry – moreover, taking into account an increasing operating time of the thick-wall elements we can only expect a growth in number of these damages. It has been commonly accepted that all thick-wall elements of power units with the so-called „designed stress concentration” and working above the limit temperature are the potential places subject to damages caused by creep processes. But, what results from our long-term experience, it is a major simplification as the analysed by us material creep failures occurred just as often, and even more often, in places where according to the design there should not have been any stress concentration. Described are potential and real places of pipeline creep damages and attached is their analysis.
Keywords: damages of pipeline thick-wall elements, creep processes
Measurement of oxide layer thickness on inner surfaces of superheater tubes using ultrasonic and optical methods in superheater diagnostics
Presented are issues and benefits ensuing from the application of measurements of oxide layer thickness on inner surfaces of superheater tubes in superheater diagnostics. Discussed is the process of layer building, measurement methods and dependences allowing to determine an average metal working temperature on basis of a layer thickness. Verified is, on examples of real samples, the accuracy of the ultrasonic measurement method.
Keywords: measurement of oxide layer thickness, superheater diagnostics
Marek SZADKOWSKI, Andrzej WARACHIM
Analysis of electric shock risk categories in industrial plants electric installations
The aim of this article is to make workers and employers more aware of the need to protect an employee or any other person from very dangerous effects of an arc discharge. However, one must remember that the described procedure (a method to determine the hazard level) is the final stage of many activities that must be taken in order to not allow an arc discharge happen at all. The most important thing is first of all to eliminate hazards and the rule „no hazards-no accidents” should be followed wherever possible. In case of electric installations the live line works should not be allowed if there is no real need – the only exception are works that can be executed with the help of adequate tools or devices and the operator is in a safe zone i.e. beyond the arc discharge endangered area.
Keywords: electrical installations and devices, electric arc hazard, electric shock risk categories
Possibilities of using of an autonomic stationary road lighting systems in smart grid and smart city structures
Considered is the possbility to use off-grid PV road lighting systems in smart grid and/or smart city structures. Special attention is paid to optimum utilization of electric energy storages (batteries) and photovoltaic panels of such prosumer microinstallations. Conducted are theoretical calculations of a dedicated (i.e. specifically designed for cooperation with a smart-grid type network) PV road lighting installation parameters. Estimated are possibilities of connecting the existing stand-alone lighting installations with a smart-grid type network.
Keywords: smart grid, stand-alone road lighting system, photovoltaic panel, prosumer