Maria BAŁAZIŃSKA, Jarosław ZUWAŁA
Analysis of the possibility of algae application in the process of CO2 removal with the use of the LCA methodology
Algae application for CO2 absorption and their subsequent use for biofuels production (e.g. of pyrolysis oils) has been the subject of many analyses [1-6]. However, there is only a small number of available publications presenting the LCA analysis of this process in Polish conditions unlike in case of other CO2 removal technologies in power industry [7-11]. Presented is here an analysis of life cycle assessment of algae applied to remove CO2 from flue gases. The research installation where algae were grown was based on a photobioreactor and was described in detail in the position . Taken into consideration were in this LCA analysis the emissions released to atmosphere as a result of electricity production process in the Polish power system for the needs of algae breeding. From these emissions was then deducted the amount of CO2 reduced as the result of photosynthesis process in algae. The research was conducted for eight microalgae species with an intention to select the species with the best characteristics of carbon dioxide consumption. Analysis was also compared with the results of research carried out on the algae growing at the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal.
Keywords: carbon dioxide (CO2), algae, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Market aspects of electric power network infrastructure development planning
Presented are selected market aspects of power network infrastructure development planning. Electricity market creates new requirements for this kind of planning and the main task of planning process is elimination of hazards connected with operation reliability and restrictions of network transmission capacity to meet the criteria of energy supply security. Electricity market development enforces increasing the effectiveness of network infrastructure development planning process. Planning procedures should be aimed at intensive utilization of the existing network infrastructure potential and at effective defining of directions of its modernization or expansion. In market conditions the main economic justification for investments or modernization of network infrastructure is reduction of the transmission limits’ costs obtained as the result of the increase in a network transmission capacity.
Keywords: electric power network infrastructure, development, planning
Jacek HULIMKA, Rafał KRZYWOŃ
The choice of optimum reconstruction technology of chimney liners in modern coal-fired power plants
Due to the intensive implementation of flue gas desulfurization process in recent years, working conditions of chimneys have been deteriorated. Reduction of flue gas temperature and flow velocity leads to rapid acceleration of a chimney liner inner surface chemical corrosion as a result of condensation of chemically aggressive condensate. Thus, users of chimneys often face necessity to perform a repair work restoring durable resistance and protection of the main structural part of a chimney against corrosives. Summarized and compared are the actual reconstruction technologies of flue liners in order to facilitate the selection of a suitable system.
Keywords: coal-fired power plants, power plant chimneys, reconstruction of chimney liners
Mariusz BANASZKIEWICZ, Grzegorz BZYMEK, Wojciech RADULSKI
Management and optimization of a steam turbine life by using an on-line monitoring system
Presented is a lifetime monitoring system OPTILIFE installed on power units 1-4 at Opole Power Plant in order to support the process of management and optimization of 18K370 steam turbines lifetime. It is a modular system implemented on a universal hardware platform consisting of an industrial controller PLC and a PC computer in an industrial standard. Its main modules are thermal stress limiter, start-up optimizer and turbine lifetime counter. Under this system, a concept of turbine lifetime assessment is proposed which consists of a life usage monitoring, on-line operation data recording and archiving as well as an off-line advanced lifetime assessment. In the end, further possibilities of improving operational flexibility of 370 MW units are discussed.
Keywords: lifetime monitoring system OPTILIFE, management and optimization of 18K370 turbines lifetime
Rafał LASKOWSKI, Artur RUSOWICZ
Minimization of entropy generation in order to determine an optimum diameter of a “church window” type steam condenser tube
Condensers of a “church window” type are one of the more recent constructional solutions used for steam condensation in classical steam power units. Conducted is an analysis of the selection of such condenser tube optimum diameter taking into consideration the change of a heat flux varying from 948 W/m to 2520 W/m on the basis of entropy generation minimization. The analysis shows that there is a possibility to reduce the total entropy generation for the analysed condenser. Taken into consideration is the entropy generation caused by heat flux and water side flow resistance. On the basis of the minimum total generation value determined is the optimum Reynolds number value and the value of the tube inner diameter. The analysis shows that for a condenser operation rated parameters the inner tube diameter can be roughly 2-3 mm less than the actual diameter value equalling 22 mm that allows to reduce the heat exchange surface and in the same time the cost of building a condenser. Reduction of a tube inner diameter causes the increase in the cooling water average velocity that in turn leads to the increase of the Nusselt number and the water side heat transfer coefficient as well as to the reduction of entropy generation as the result of a heat flux. Alas, apart from the positive aspects of the increase in the cooling water average velocity there is also a negative one in the form of the flow resistance growth.
Keywords: thermal power plants, condensers, optimization of a condenser tube diameter
Marcin TARASIUK, Jacek ŚWIDERSKI
Application of modern advanced metering structure systems (AMI) in the development process of intelligent MV and LV power networks
Discussed are methods of modern metering systems application in the intelligent MV and LV networks. When planning the AMI system in a version supporting a distribution network development in the direction of an intelligent network one should specify adequate functional requirements for residential meters, concentrators and balance meters, telecommunication infrastructure and methods to ensure communication, equipping the MV/LV substations with guaranteed supply systems and Central Application of AMI System in the frames of cooperation with other IT systems. Requirements should take into consideration those functions and features that are indispensable for the AMI system to support business processes connected with network operation, ensuring high level reliability and quality of power supply and an increase in energy efficiency.
Keywords: MV and LV intelligent networks, AMI metering system, AMI application for the support of distribution networks
Magdalena ZUBRZYCKA, Adam KUPCZYK, Michał SIKORA, Jędrzej TRAJER
Agricultural biogas plants and the Renewable Energy Sources Act
Presented are the most important aspects of the Polish biogas plants’ sector condition. The Polish energy sector faces difficult challenges connected with implementation of the EU Guidelines concerning an increase in the utilisation rate of energy produced from renewable sources. Too long expectation for the RES Act that came into force only on May 4, 2015, caused slow development of renewable energy sources in Poland. As a result of this, the domestic biogas market is growing slowly and loses its attractiveness.
Keywords: biogas, agriculture, energy, cogeneration