Herbert Leopold GABRYŚ
Power industry in Poland in 2015. An attempt to make a judgement of that year on basis of results and challenges
Discussed are basic features of electric energy production in Poland in the first half of the year 2015 against the background of political changes in our country and in the EU energy policy. Analysed are results of different types of electric energy production technologies and the structure of its generation.
Keywords: power industry, economic results, production projections, climate policy
Marek SZADKOWSKI, Andrzej WARACHIM, Krzysztof DEKARZ
Minimization of results of arc faults in MV indoor substations
The need to protect a service staff or a bystander against arc fault results should be an absolute priority when constructing switchgears and designing container casings for MV distribution substations.
Presented is sequencing and hierarchy of actions that should be taken in order to avoid an arc discharge and, if it happened, to minimize its results. The most important thing is to eliminate any hazards and one should apply this rule wherever it is possible. Personal protective equipment must be used on basis of properly made analysis of a hazard category and only in case of live working .When designing new and modernizing the already existing MV substations, a reliable analysis of arc fault hazard is needed as well as the knowledge of the best ways to reduce it. Indicated is also that problems of this kind become very important in an everyday operational practice.
Keywords: distribution networks, indoor MV/LV substations, arc faults
Marta DROSIŃSKA-KOMOR, Natalia SZEWCZUK, Jerzy GŁUCH
Renewable energy sources and the public opinion
Presented is the public opinion on renewable energy sources. Described is also a level of public knowledge about nuclear power industry. Obtained data allow to conclude that more than a half of surveyed persons take a positive view of building a nuclear plant in Poland. But only 19% would like to live in its vicinity and 30% of them have still no definite opinion on that matter. It can probably be explained by the lack of sufficient information on what advantages or hazards can result from this way of energy acquisition. As the negative sides of generating energy from renewable sources the respondents indicated its price and variability of weather conditions that influence obtaining energy from such sources like wind, sun or water.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, nuclear power industry, public opinion
Antonina KIELECZAWA, Michał BIAŁECKI, Jerzy DRUTKO, Radosław IZAKIEWICZ, Piotr PIETRAS, Roman SKAKOWSKI, Wojciech SZUBERT, Edward ZIAJA
Values of QNX operating system and its communication systems at service of the MASTER Automation System distributed installations
Presented are the most important features of QNX system particularly useful for the operation of MASTER automation system. Distinguished are operating systems of monolithic structure and systems with microkernel to which the QNX system belongs. Microkernel QNX supports system processes contained in its resources as well as MASTER system utility processes having its own possibility to manage their execution. Presented is a mechanism of easily applicable various file service systems including the supply failure resistant QNX6 file sytem and reliable communication systems, one elaborated by the Institute and a universal one using the (TCP,UDP)/IP protocols. The systems, thanks to mutual cooperation, enable access to all station disc resources and MASTER system controllers configured in its distributed installation. The Institute also provides its own tools for servicing large-size graphic displays and for realization of local and remote diagnostic and service activities, etc.
Keywords: operation systems, real-time systems, distributed automation systems, communication protocols
Grzegorz BAŁUKA, Jacek KIERNICKI, Piotr STAWSKI
Scientific and research facilities of the Institute of Power Systems Automation for works in the field of alternative energy industry. The Laboratory for Alternative Energy Resources (LAZE)
Presented is, being now organized in IASE on basis of the already built in the frames of the UE project, the Laboratory for Alternative Energy Resources. Descibed is its location, equipment and methods to make use of it for research on renewable energy resources exploitation and for education processes dedicated to Wrocław inhabitants and guests with the special attention paid to young people. Given is the outline of functions of the information system used in the Laboratory as well as its development prospects.
Keywords: research laboratory, renewable energy resources, fuel cell
Włodzimierz FENNIG, Maciej KIELIAN, Mariusz LIPIŃSKI, Roman SKAKOWSKI, Paweł KURCZALSKI, Martyna SOLIS, Szymon ABRAMCZYK, Andrzej BIELACZYC, Zbigniew KILIAŃSKI, Stanisław LASOTA, Paweł SARNECKI
A system for diagnostics and automatic control system monitoring as a tool to supervise the operation and to forecast the power units preventive actions demonstrated at the example of its application at ENEA WYTWARZANIE Sp. z o.o.
Presented is a system which purpose is to monitor and check the quality of an automatic control system and to diagnose a power unit operation. The system is based on expert programs and algorithms which cooperate with existing DCS systems. Using the received, registered and processed data, the analysis results are presented. They allow the performance evaluation of control systems and a power unit in a given period. The received information enables operators to take possible preventive actions in advance. Consequently, it is possible to obtain more efficient, optimal and reliable power station operation as well as the exploitation cost reduction. The system has already been successfully implemented for four power units in ENEA Wytwarzanie Sp. z o.o.
Keywords: power industry, diagnostics, automatic control systems, quality management
Asset management – security management
Problems with energy supply, which occurred this summer, showed that energy production is not only the source of costs in a capital group in power sector, but maybe (and actually is) an important (or even basic) element of national power system safety. However, it is a discovery for many. Technical condition of production assets is one of most important factors od power safety. Respectively high importance of this issue should be restored. Business models that optimize investments in maintenance of production assets should take into account current technical condition of the equipment and flexible mode of operation.
Keywords: security management, power safety
Jerzy TRZESZCZYŃSKI, Wojciech MURZYNOWSKI, Radosław STANEK
Pro Novum experiences and intensions connected with adapting long time operated assets of national power system to work in a perspective up to year 2030
Despite fulfilment of legal requirements, especially in scope of emission limits for dusts, SOx and NOx, the program of modernization of 200 MW commenced in 2010 implies assuring safe operation of thermos-mechanical power equipment in a perspective of about 350.000 hours. This refers especially to critical elements operated beyond designed lifetime. To rise this challenge Pro Novum together with experts from all power plants in Poland equipped with 200 MW units and in cooperation with the Office of Technical Inspection elaborated ‘Guidelines for qualification of elements of thermo-mechanical equipment of 200 MW power units to life extension up to 350 000 working hours’. The rules described in this document have been used in varying degrees during modernizations of the majority of 200 MW power units. Because of expected change of service conditions not only of 200 MW units the document will be updated. Due to National Power System safety the users of modernized power units should cooperate with each other in a way, which enables exchange of information and knowledge about safety assurance and expected availability of units with the status of JWCD (productive unit centrally predisposed).
Keywords: modernization of 200 MW power units
Destructive testing of long time operated drums of steam boilers
The drum is a thick-walled critical element to working below the temperature limit, forecast of lifetime is almost unlimited, as long as the designer selected thickness properly and a drilled of the wall based on Ret of material drum. Because most long operated drums exceeded the contractual limit of 200 000 hours in the paper we discuss on the historical background of the different approaches to determining the life prediction based on the analysis of non-destructive and destructive tests carried out on samples taken from ‘corks’ cut from the metal shell of the drum.
Presented also developed based on years of experience of their own, approach the “Pro Novum” Sp. z o.o. to this important issue diagnosis.
Keywords: drums of steam boilers, destructive testing, the life prediction of long time operated drums of steam boilers
Wojciech BRUNNÉ, Rafał SZYJA, Bartosz BORCZ, Wojciech MERDALSKI, Małgorzata ŁUCZAK
Diagnostic supervision of steam pipelines in on-line mode – review of Pro Novum’s experiences
The genesis of steam pipelines monitoring system creation was a necessity to supervise and evaluate theirs technical condition in an on-line mode. Currently Pro Novum is providing such solutions in a form of remote diagnostic service using the IT platform – LM System PRO+®. Service is able to monitor selected technical issues and it can cover whole main steam pipelines system or selected elements. Implementations presented in the paper resulted in the optimization of pipeline elements repair activities in a manner appropriate to theirs technical condition.
Keywords: steam pipelines monitoring system, diagnostic supervision in on-line mode, the IT platform – LM System PRO+®
Asset management of power plant equipment during long term outages
Progressive changes in the energy market associated with an increasing share of power from renewable energy sources and their privileged position in the queue to the power grid operator with the necessary level of system security, guaranteed by conventional energy sources will require a change in the approach to the management of production assets during long shutdowns in view of the need for effective start-up from the cold reserve. The status quo means the creation of spare parts stores with a limited shelf life. The paper outlines the problems and possible solutions associated with maintaining the good condition of the technical equipment during long term outages.
Keywords: asset management of power plant equipment, the technical equipment during long term outages
Ryszard GRZELKA, Aleksander IWANIAK, Sławomir RAJCA, Ewald GRZESICZEK
Diagnostics and regeneration of blades of steam turbines’ rotors using the methods of laser welding, laser padding and coatings’ application
Technical condition of steam turbines’ blading is a subject of special attention of every turbine user and a big technical challenge for overhaul and diagnostic companies. Efficiency of power equipment, its availability and safety depend on the technical condition of blades. Since its beginning Pro Novum identifies, detects and analyzes damages of blading and some of most experienced Pro Novum experts do it even longer. On this basis we prepare technologies and supervise repairs of the rotors.
During diagnostic tests we detect design and manufacturing defects and operational damages.
Service conditions for steam turbines have changed greatly recently; many turbines operate in flexible load, their technical minima are being reduced, number of start ups – increased and periods outages are longer. In the paper, prepared as a result of cooperation of Pro Novum and Plasma System, the authors present different examples of damages of blading as well as new, checked and more often used methods of geometry reconstruction and hence restoration of original applied features, which is restoration of the efficiency of blading. It is shown that in such cases cooperation of the diagnostic company and the one offering the newest blades’ regeneration technologies may be for a client a source of additional benefits.
Keywords: diagnostics and regeneration of blades of steam turbines’ rotors, examples of damages of blading, methods of geometry reconstruction
Paweł NITECKI, Sławomir BIAŁEK, Wojciech MURZYNOWSKI
Security of iT systems benefiting from the process information of power plant on the example of selected it systems installed in PGE GIEK S.A.
Spectacular hackers’ attacks on industrial IT networks are recently the biggest challenge, which faced for example the trades using OT and ICT systems. The power sector is one of such. LM System PRO+® implemented in branches of PGE GiEK S.A. is qualified to the group of diagnostic systems – which allow to perform assessment and analyses the condition of technological installations and the systems of data exchange – aimed at transferring data to other OT systems or business systems within the company or outside. In order to verify the security status of the system in the context of protection of the critical infrastructure of power plant the authors analyzed the list of basic vulnerabilities of LM System PRO+® to threats generated both inside the organization and by external network and environment. The list includes main areas, which shall be secured, which are the security of network infrastructure as well as the security of the equipment and physical protection.
Keywords: security of IT systems, OT systems, the IT platform – LM System PRO+®
Sławomir RAJCA, Ewald GRZESICZEK
Damages of turbines’ rotors
Among the critical elements of turbo sets, but also whole power units, the technical condition of turbine rotors has one of highest importance status. It decides about their efficiency, availability and safety. Previous operational and diagnostic experiences show that because of these criteria LP rotors (relatively new) may be a bigger problem in modernized turbines of 200 MW than long time operated (over 250 000 hours) HP and IP rotors. Recently identified typical and unusual damages of turbines and generators are shown in the context of their lifetime on the basis of plenty of own testing including the unique ones covering destructive testing of HP and IP rotors of 200 MW turbines after 250 000 working hours. New conditions and operational requirements for both the turbines and whole power units connected with flexible load have been taken into consideration.
Keywords: damages of turbines’ rotors, HP and IP rotors, destructive testing
Radosław STANEK, Jacek MACIEJEWSKI
The experience of the diagnostic supervision of boiler tubes modernized BB-1150 boilers on the basis of risk analysis and its trends
Performed for more than a year diagnostic supervision of all boiler tubes of K3 - K6 modernized boilers at Bełchatów Power Plant allows to present the first observations on the assessment of the service concept, its software support and the usefulness of periodic reports. Diagnostic supervision provides a very good basis for planning its development towards extending the functionality and benefits of its use in planning repairs and preventive actions.
Keywords: diagnostic supervision, K3 - K6 modernized boilers
Kamil STASZAŁEK, Przemysław SYTY
Desuperheaters failures in cyclic operation mode
Desuperheater (direct-contact attemperator) is the one of the most effective and commonly used methods of superheated steam temperature control. Difficult work conditions, due to the desuperheater operating principle, often results in numerous failures. In this article we are presenting most common problems of desuperheater operation under base and cyclic load, typical failures and methods of diagnosis which provide maximum reliability and availability.
Keywords: desuperheater, problems of desuperheater operation