Ryszard BARTNIK, Anna HNYDIUK-STEFAN
Economic analysis of LCOE calculated for various generation technologies
The EU climate policy and the Climate and Energy Package enforced primarily by Germany and then also by France, whose energy industry is based mainly on nuclear power plants, are a serious threat for the Polish power industry. This is because the Polish power stations are prevailingly fueled by coal, which can be found in abundant amounts on our territory. When signing the Package our government went well beyond all expectations and, what is more, with catastrophic consequences for the country. It was extremely irresponsible to express the consent and sign the Package with the base year date changed from 1990 to 2005. In the name of what it has been done?! At the same time we reduced, compared to 1990, emissions of CO2 by 32%, though according to Kioto Protocol we were expected to achieve only 6%. In another words we have fulfilled the assumed criterion of 20% with a big surplus, while other EU rich countries of “the old 15” can boast of 2% only (instead of 8%) without any sanctions imposed on them. Moreover, there was no evidence that anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, mainly of carbon dioxide, is responsible for the so-called greenhouse effect. The published recently reasearch results show that temperatures in the world have stopped growing since 1994, though during the last 20 years the hard coal consumption in the world increased by 100% and in the year 2014 was equal to 7,1 billion tonnes.
Keywords: electric energy generation costs, differentiated technologies of electric energy generation, economic analysis
Possibility of Internet of things technology implementation in smart power grids
Internet of Things is a new technology, which can be used in smart grids in future. In 2012, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology was recognized by the Polish energy regulatory office as a long-range goal in scope of its usage in smart power grids. In the article, Internet of Things solutions were divided into three groups: smart objects or devices, smart sensors and tags. The article shows areas of smart grids in which it would be desired to use the IoT technologies from particular groups.
Keywords: smart grid, Internet of Things, fog computing, smart meter
Some aspects of power system protection application on HV cable and overhead-cable lines
Presented are selected problems concerning realization of short-circuit results protection on HV cable and overhead-cable lines. Considered is the so-far experience in operation of such lines, recommendations that can be found in the literature, and also the author’s own reasearch on electromagnetic transient states during short-circuit faults on an 110 kV overhead-cable line.
Keywords: power system protection, HV cable and overhead-cable lines
Jerzy KOLANKO, Przemysław MUSZ, Tomasz KOLANKO, Piotr MODZEL, Janusz DUDZIK, Zbigniew WIERZBICKI
Application of a power processor (by DIN 40100) for AC power and energy measurements
Presented is a power processor and its first measurements results. The processor itself is an electronic system allowing division of the power measuring signal (obtained from a multiplier circuit) into components P+ and P-, labelled in the literature as input power (Pv) and reverse power (Pr). Reverse power is harmful, arises as a result of a current phase shift against feeding voltage, has a negative sign and is a natural power division useful, through its physical properties, for billing and dynamic compensation.
Keywords: power processor, power and energy measurements, alternative current (AC)
Wiesław RYBAK, Wojciech MOROŃ, Krzysztof CZAJKA, Karol KRÓL, Anna KISIELA, Arkadiusz SZYDEŁKO, Wiesław JODKOWSKI, Jan JERZMAŃSKI, Czesław ANDRYJOWICZ
Possibility of reusing unburned carbon separated from fly ash
Presented is the concept of management of unburned carbon separated from grains of fly ash formed during combustion of lignite in PGE GiEK S.A. – Oddział Elektrownia Bełchatów. Following technologies were taken under consideration: recirculation of unburned carbon back into the boiler, production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and an adsorption-catalytic reduction of gaseous pollutants from flue gas. Obtained results prove that for the unburned carbon grains of sizes less than 1,0 mm (B08) the optimum application is co-firing with coal while for particles of size ≥ 1,0 mm (B10, B15) better solution would be production of SRF or high-ranking coal materials of adsorption-catalytic properties. Moreover, the conducted legal analysis proves that the unburned carbon separated from fly ash is an intentionally manufactured product and shall neither be treated as a waste nor a by-product. Nevertheless, legalization of the recovery process will require the change of an integrated environmental permit and hence the modification of a power generation concession.
Keywords: solid recovered fuels (SRF), unburned carbon in ashes, application of unburned coal