Jacek WAŃKOWICZ, Adam SOBCZYK
Activity of CIGRE and PKWSE. 46th CIGRE Session 2016
Presented is the structure and organization of CIGRE. Discussed is the course of 46th CIGRE Session that was held in Paris on August 21-26, 2016. It was attended by ca. 8.000 participants from 93 countries and 3290 delegates took part in the Conference. 199 meetings of Study Committees and Working Groups took place during six days of the Session. Technical exhibition hosted 242 firms and among them there were also Polish companies like ZAPEL S.A., Energo-Complex Sp. z o.o. and Boryszew SA Oddział NPA Skawina. Polish delegation consisted of 34 persons and among the Session materials there were published 6 papers that had been prepared by the PKWSE members.
Keywords: international organizations of electricians, CIGRE, PKWSE, 46th CIGRE Session
Rotating Electrical Machines – Study Committee A1
Discussed are articles concerning issues like development of rotating electrical machines and service eexperience, management of electrical machines lifetime and application of these machines in renewable energy production. Described are the recent achievements in the range of power transducers and presented is the development in construction of a 4-pole cylindrical rotor turbogenerator for use in nuclear power stations. Described is also a method to increase capacity of an indirectly hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator. Attention is called to the fact that the cooling system optimization enabled reduction of generator dimensions and cooler reconstruction. Presented is also the analysis of a 450 MVA turbogenerator laminations stack fault followed by the stator core damage.
Keywords: electrical machines, modern constructions, designing and production, service and maintenance
Marceli KAŹMIERSKI, Paweł WARCZYŃSKI
Transformers – Study Committee A2
Described is the Study Committee A2 activity. Reviewed is the transformer subject area during the CIGRE Session. Special attention is paid to three issues: advances in transformer diagnostics and monitoring, transformers and their components in EHU/UHV and EHVDC/UHVDC networks as well as transformer windings. Mentioned is the issue of on-line working monitoring systems. Ascertained is a trend to include these systems into the overall strategy of smart grids creation. Stated is that for some years now the so-called Transformer Health Index (HI), determined on the basis of detailed diagnostic tests conducted in on-line and off-line systems, has been implemented. The alternative to preventive operational activities is a strategy based on anticipation of faults’ effects in a transformer i.e. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). Mentioned are also some aspects of gases dissolved in a transformer oil analysis (DGA), comprising a new DGA results interpretation method where the starting point is creation of a so-called “gas pattern” that has already been used in Japanese power industry for some time now.
Keywords: transformers in a power system, operation, Transformer Health Index (HI), transformer components, DGA analysis
High Voltage Equipment – Study Committee A3
Discussed is the problem of a high-voltage equipment for new requirements of power systems, management of equipment lifetime in transmission and distribution systems and application of information technologies for management and development of HV equipment. And, when searching the common denominator for the proposed preferential subject, one can observe a special concern about electrical energy quality parameters. CIGRE 2016 Session brought a number of new and interesting informations concerning the current state of a high voltage equipment development. Given are informations resulting from investigations aimed at defining the requirements needed for performing switching between busbar systems in high-voltage distribution substations. Presented are problems connected with improvement of solutions in construction of high-voltage breakers used in DC systems. Described are new testing methods dedicated for 800 kV breakers. Given is an information concerning checking of the properties of “g3” gas used as a replacement to SF6 usually applied in GIS substations and in “live tank” type breakers – the use of this gas should minimize the greenhouse effect. Presented is a new high-voltage cascaded breaker designed to work in DC systems. Described are opportunities that in the range of a load level and damage avoidance monitoring can be offered by the contactless temperature control of a power equipment during its operation.
Keywords: power system, HV equipment, equipment lifetime management
Insulated cables – Study Committee B1
Activity of the Study Committee B1 comprises all aspects of issues concerning land and submarine power cable systems. These are, among the others, theoretical and practical topics relating to building, production, installing, testing, operation and maintenance as well as diagnostic technologies for AC and DC cable networks. The scope of works also includes issues referring to examination, assessment and lifetime forecasting of HV cable lines. Main themes that were referred to by the papers accepted for CIGRE 2016 Session were newly installed or modernized cable systems, the best examples of using the existing cable systems and also cable lines in future systems. Described are, among the others, interesting solutions of cable connections for floating wind farms as well as tests of a 420 kV HVAC new construction cable to be laid in deep water.
Keywords: cable lines, building of cables and fittings, installation and operation of cable lines
Overhead Lines – Study Committee B2
Study Committee B2 is one of the biggest and oldest CIGRE committees. Currently, about 300 experts from more than 40 countries work in 25 Working Groups. Discussed are papers on topics devoted to overhead lines with special attention paid to the increase of their acceptability, transmission capacity, reliability and accessibility. They were mainly focussed on such issues like increasing transfer capacity of overhead lines, design management, building and costs as well as new materials and technologies. For instance, one of the Spanish papers presented analysis of possible application of a compact line with pivoted insulated cross-arms, the Icelandic one described tubular poles for the planned reconstruction of a 220 kV transmission line, the Norwegian – testing of ice loads measurement, and the Canadian – the in situ detection of broken ACSR strands with the help of Line Scout robots equipped with portable X-ray systems. In the Romanian paper we can read about the pilot project “smart grid” for on-line monitoring and diagnosing of power plants and HV overhead lines, in the Austrian one presented are solutions and innovations created and tested with the aim to uprate the 220 kV OHL to 380 kV, and the French one says about the new RTE project of a single-circuit HV overhead 90 kV line using tubular composite poles.
Keywords: overhead power lines, innovations in overhead lines development, transmission capacity
Substations – Study Committee B3
The range of the Study Committee B3 activities comprises design, building, operation and management of substations and electric installations in power plants, excluding generators. Main aims of these works are: maximising substation reliability and availability, cost effective solutions, engineering management of an environmental impact, effective management and adoption of relevant technological solutions, devices and systems to achieve these aims. Preferential subjects were: advances in substation technology, developments and new thinking in substation design and evolution in substation management. Desribed are, among the others, methods of fault preventing to improve the system being a part of a non-conventional instrument transformer. An interesting subject is also description of experience gained by China constructors during application of autonomous intelligent robots (SmartGuard models) used for inspection of equipment in substations. Presented is a solution of a substation concept based on the so-called “bus-node” – in the opinion of Swiss authors of the paper this solution leads to reduction of an open-air substation dimensions that in turn has an impact on its costs. Described is experience from “Le Havre” modernization program consisting in replacement of outdated breakers in one of GIS substations.
Keywords: advances in substation technology, substation design, evolution in substation management
HVDC and Power Electronics – Study Committee B4
In the frames of the Study Committee B4 plenar session presented was a record number of 45 papers concerning HVDC transmission systems and systems FACTS. Three groups of main subjects were thus formed: application of HVDC systems, FACTS systems and power electronic devices in transmission systems as well as FACTS systems and power electronic devices in distribution systems. In the first subject, instead of presenting new projects, described was experience gained during the start up procedure and further operation of these systems, DC networks were replaced by point-to-point HVDC systems embedded into a synchronic system and in the case of DC breakers the focus was moved to changes in semiconductor-type converter topology. The second subject was dominated by issues concerning tests and operation of FACTS systems, mainly STATCOM and SVC equipment. Finally, in the third subject, mentioned were issues concerning MVDC systems that can control active and reactive power flow in critical points (hot-spots) of a network and support voltage control.
Keywords: DC transmission systems, FACTS type systems, power electronic devices
Protection and Automation – Study Committee B5
Two selected topics were presented for discussion during plenar session of the Study Committee B5: control and protection systems – optimization and lifetime management as well as coordination of generator and power network protection systems. In the first of them mentioned were the issues concerning the role of optimum creation and archiving of project documentation, configuration files, recording of events and faults during the whole lifetime of a control and protection system and also an experience in integration and operation of control and protection systems using IEC 61850 standard. In the second one mentioned were topics concerning, for example, malfunction of generating units or network protections resulting from their improper mutual coordination and methods to improve it, methods to verify this coordination of generating units and network protections and impact of distributed sources and HVDC on the functioning of generators and network protections. And, when you create a properly functioning system of protection and control, it is very important to test it. In this case the Study Committee B5 believes that such system should be tested already at the stage of its concept creation in the way of simulation studies. Tests should also comprise a check of IED devices intended for use in the designed system.
Keywords: power systems, protection and automatics, equipment lifetime management
System Development and Economics – Study Committee C1
In the frames of the Study Committee C1 presented were 36 papers that were divided into three thematic blocks: current state of scientific knowledge in the range of approach and standardization in the decision making process connected with asset management; problems with allocation and cooperation when planning transmission and distribution networks in multilateral projects as well as new systemic solutions and planning techniques for creation of elastic and stable system development plans. In the area of the first thematic block indicated is the need to implement significant changes into the hitherto being in use method of asset management and extention of the cost benefit analysis beyond financial indicators as well as to supplement them with quantity indicators of individual client needs and social and environmental indicators. In the second block presented are issues connected with multilateral cooperation in planning of networks development. Shown are benefits resulting from building new crossborder interconnections and analysed is the case of Crete connected by submarine cable with the mainland as well as the case of interconnected systems of Persian Gulf countries. At last, the third block includes – among the other mentioned subjects – new solutions in the scope of renewable sources integration with power systems, the more and more widely application of probabilistic methods in development planning processes as well as implementation on a larger scale of hybrid solutions like AC/DC, FACTS, isolated systems or energy stores.
Keywords: power system development, energy storage, system economics
System Operation and Control – Study Committee C2
During plenar session of the Study Committee C2 presented were papers dedicated to subjects like methods of network operation with changed generation mix comprising distributed energy and renewable sources as well as a system management during system faults with the subsequent system restoration. Many papers concerned challenges posed to a power system by the increasing share of generation sources connected to the network with the use of power electronics. Presented is the influence of RES on operational security as in case of the system in Ireland. Given are new methods to forecast generation from PV sources used in Western Australia in the area of SWIS (South-West Isolated System). Described is implementation of dynamic line rating system by the Belgian TSO – ELIA. Presented is a new Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) platform launched by the Italian TSO – TERNA together with research company CESI. Given are current data concerning rapid growth of UHVAC/DC projects number in a hybrid China power system managed by the State Grid Corp. of China. The distinguished paper of this Session related to process of preparation, course and positive results of a system restoration ability test conducted by ESKOM – the TSO in the Republic of South Africa.
Keywords: power system, real time operation, PV generation forecast
System Environmental Performance – Study Committee C3
Environmental protection is an important topic of the Study Committee C3 works. During the General Session of CIGRE, Paris 2016, representatives of many TSOs clearly expressed the necessity to “blend” the transmission infrastructure into the surroundings using the services provided by landscape architects and this view was reflected in the presented papers. In the framework of the Committee C3 presented were 17 papers that were divided into three thematic blocks: environmental responsibility, problems with acceptability and the impact of climate changes on power systems. All these problems concern many countries and, for instance, the problem of a landscape protection solutions was shown on the example of Great Britain and Spain.
Keywords: power systems, environmental protection, transmission infrastructure and a landscape
System Technical Performance – Study Committee C4
In the framework of the Study Committee C4 area of interests papers concerning three main subjects were prepared for the CIGRE Session in Paris 2016. They covered a broad spectrum of activities in many fields like energy quality, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and faults, insulation coordination, lightning discharges and models of a power system behaviour as well as numerical methods. The preferential topics were: impact on a power system of energy sources and stores that were connected to the system with the use of converters, challenges concerning modeling and lightning discharges assessment as well as insulation co-ordination in the future of power systems as well as overcoming barriers in simulations with the application of EMT, FEM and symmetrical components methods. Raised in the papers technical problems of power systems relate to conditions, parameters and behaviour of such systems in transient and steady states. The discussed issues focus on interactions between a power system and subsystems and equipment as well as on cases of exposure to outdoor hazards. These problems are often common to TSOs and not only in Europe but also throughout the world. The constant development of euqipment, installations and generation technologies sets new needs and challenges for the future power system structures. So, the presented content determines the future directions of research, practically.
Keywords: power systems, methods and analytics tools, transient and steady states
Konrad PURCHAŁA, Sebastian KRUPIŃSKI, Anna WRONKA
Electricity Markets and Regulation – Study Committee C5
Issues discussed during the session of the Study Committee C5 dedicated to energy markets were divided into three following subjects: the future of evolving electrical energy market; relationship between wholesale and retail markets; market models and its regulatory structures in the aspect of a power sector evolution as well as dispersed power generation integration, DSR (Demand Side Response) and electric energy storage having regard to the electric power market structure. Currently, there are two factors that are the most decisive ones for electrical energy markets – one is a rapid development of new technologies and in particular of the renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage, and the second is the implementation of demand management mechanisms DSR. They do not only create new business possibilities but also introduce significant changes in the essence of electric energy markets. The energy storage technology, deciding whether many RES are successful or not, is not sufficiently mature yet to be ready for being implemented as a standard into power systems. The works on improving this technology and increasing its profitability have been carried on for a long time now and they are indispensable for the success of these new market principles.
Keywords: electrical energy market, RES technologies, demand management
Distribution Systems and Dispersed Generation – Study Committee C6
Presented is a group of papers dedicated to planning of development and work as well as to operational management of a distribution network highly penetrated by dispersed generation. Development of dispersed generation is the cause of the biggest changes in working conditions of MV and LV networks that for many years have been designed and operated as distribution ones. Recently, we have been observing more and more frequently the reverse active power flow. In the nearest future electric cars will be the source of interferences in distribution networks. Developed are methods of a network operating conditions estimation with the use of historical measurements and reduction of the number of the current ones. In one of the papers there was presented a review of methods used for testing solutions of the “smart” type – the paper was prepared by an international group of scientists representing 11 institutions that were involved in Grid4EU, EvolvDSO and IGREENGrid projects. Presented were also methods of micro-grids operating conditions optimization including PV generation and energy stores.
Keywords: MV distribution networks, dispersed generation, electric cars
Materials and Emerging Test Techniques – Study Committee D1
Discussed are papers dedicated to problems of assessment and monitoring of the development of new electrotechnical materials and modern research techniques concerning their operational properties. One must remeber that these problems concern both insulation and conductive materials. Presented are also modern diagnostic techniques as well as analysis and interpretation methods concerning results of research on processes related to changes in these materials when exposed to electrical, thermal and environmental hazards. Particular attention is paid to new research techniques applied for assessment of technical condition of power industry facilities. Preferential subjects of the papers were AC and DC compact insulation systems, new materials as well as non-standard hazards and new diagnostic techniques.
Keywords: research techniques, diagnostic tools, new electrotechnical materials
Information Systems and Telecommunication – Study Committee D2
Discussed are papers that concerned data communication and telecommunication systems in the power sector and were divided into three leading groups: new applications to control power systems, EPUs response to growing hazards to IT security and mobile operational systems and applications. Presented is the process of creation of an active network security system. Attention is also paid to monitoring of new technologies with the aim to assess their impact on EPUs. Described are requirements ensuring proper integration of dispersed energy sources with distribution networks, first of all with the LV ones. Presented is characteristics of LV networks as a telecommunication system. Attention is turned to the importance of proper IT systems functioning in the aspect of a power system protection and operation.
Keywords: IT systems and telecommunication, new technologies, data communication security