Herbert L. GABRYŚ
Power industry in Poland in 2018. An attempt of judgment and reflection over the 2017 results
Discussed are basic problems of the Polish power industry in the year 2017 against the background of the current electric energy production dynamics and external factors like the EU energy policy in particular. Attention is turned to the fact of a growing difference between the volumes of electric energy produced by hard coal- and brown coal-fired power plants and an increasing share in the energy production of the latter ones. Moreover given are informations concerning i.a. power trade balance with foreign countries during daily peak hours, electric energy sales structure of power plants and CHPs, average prices of energy sold by producers, unit technical cost of production, financial results of CHPs and electricity supplies constraints in Poland in the years 2006-2017.
Keywords: Polish power industry, evaluation of the year 2017, the EU energy policy
Certification and requirements for non-destructive testing personnel in nuclear power industry
Discussed are basic differences between main types of NDT personnel certifications being in force in the world according to the “second” and “third” parties. Described are attempts to define divergences between codes referring to Class 1 elements of nuclear power plants in individual countries. Discussed are main directions of attempts to harmonize regulations concerning the NDT personnel. Presented are requirements imposed on employers in the process of NDT personnel certification according to the “third party” on the basis of ISO 9712:2012 standard.
Keywords: non-destructive testing, NDT personnel, main types of personnel certification, directions of regulations harmonization
A review on implementation of preliminary water treatment installations in the Polish power industry
Preliminary water treatment is one of the most important technological processes carried out as a part of water and sewage management in power plants. Described are technological solutions for preliminary water treatment and presented are, based on various technologies, selected systems for preliminary water preparation in power industry and the equivalent ones for chemical industry as well. Concluded is that the optimum procedure in an investment process framework is preparation of a multivariant conception of preliminary water preparation and then verification of individual technological solutions, preferably on the basis of tests conducted on pilot installations. Advisable is to carry out these works with the support of specialists having experience in preliminary water treatment technologies.
Keywords: water and sewage management in power plants, technological solutions for preliminary water treatment
Henryk SKOTNICKI, Janusz SKWARA
Optimization of the work of gypsum dehydration and sewage treatment node of FGD installation at Elektrownia Połaniec power station
Application of the wet FGD technology causes the production of large amount of process water full of such pollutants like suspended solids, salts, heavy metals and boron. The sewage is produced in gypsum dehydration units and in technological conditions of Elektrownia Połaniec power station it is a raw filtrate from gypsum centrifuges sent directly to the FGD sewage treatment unit. Given is the description of Elektrownia Połaniec FGD installation, specified are operational problems and described is the progress of optimization undertakings. Presented are conclusions and recommendations after the executed optimization. Alas, the introduced changes do not guarantee sufficient resistance to major disturbances in an FGD operation. It seems that it would be appropriate to install an additional unit for preliminary separation of sediments from raw sewage flowing into the treatment plant but this, in turn, requires bearing certain investment outlays.
Keywords: Elektrownia Połaniec power station, flue gas desulfurization installation, optimization of gypsum dehydration and sewage treatment node operation
Marian TUREK, Jolanta TROJANOWSKA, Antoni LITWINOWICZ
Boron removal from wet FGD system sewages
Among many different kinds of sewages generated by power plants there are also some specific ones that appeared when big wet FGD installations began to work. These are wastewaters containing significant amount of chlorides and sulphates as well as of heavy metals. In some cases they also contain big amounts of boron and nitrogen compounds and, depending on the type of fuel, the concentration of boron in raw wastewaters may vary between 30 and 300 g/m3. Such wastewater cannot be directly managed in a power plant closed cycle systems nor discharged to external reservoirs and that is why every FGD installation is usually equipped with a wastewater treatment system. The systems are regarded as separate technological assemblies having a dominant influence on the required quality of sewages generated in power plants and discharged into external surface receivers. In the framework of cooperation between the Katedra Chemii Nieorganicznej, Analitycznej i Elektrochemii Wydziału Chemicznego Politechniki Śląskiej and Zakłady Pomiarowo-Badawcze Energetyki „ENERGOPOMIAR” Sp. z o.o., benefiting from many years of experience of both entities in the scope of wastewater boron removal and knowledge of the power sector, developed were ideas concerning integrated systems for wastewater boron removal.
Keywords: wet FGD systems, power plant sewages, wastewater boron removal
January Lech MIKULSKI
Updating of type tests of OPGW wires
Presented is the currently required scope of type tests of OPGW wires, at the same time pointing out the actual requirements concerning these tests. Moreover, taking into account the long-term experience, formulated was the justified approval scope of these wires type tests.
Keywords: OPGW wires, optical fibres, type tests, current requirements
Mateusz PŁAWECKI, Edward RÓWIŃSKI, Agnieszka FULCZYK,
Mirosław CHYLIŃSKI, Piotr SZPULAK, Błażej BZOWSKI
Conversion of solar energy to electricity by saline/semiconductor interface
The technological innovation of the direct conversion of solar energy to electric plays an important role in electric power generation. Here we propose band bending of n-type and p-type semiconductors induced by a self-assembled microdrop of a saline. The saline microdrop/semiconductor interface under incident light irradiation exhibits an electric power. We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that the band bending of the interface structure will enable it to act as an electric power generator system in the near future.
Keywords: solar energy, application of saline/semiconductor interface, technical innovations, generation of electric energy