Jacek Kalina, Wojciech Stanek
System integration of electric energy storage technologies
In this paper the most important issues related to the implementation of electric energy storage technologies into the energy system are discussed in general, including a review of available and new concepts of technological solutions. The aim of this work is to familiarize the reader with the complexity of the issue of electricity storage in modern energy systems, as well as development trends that may in the future constitute real solutions for technical infrastructure of the energy market.
Keywords: energy system, electric energy storage
Three waves of electroprosumerism
Ecological nature, factory production and solutions scalability of electroprosumerism make it easily applicable to social relations. These features provoke to make use of the three waves metaphor for description of electroprosumerism development dynamics in the horizon of 2050. And this is the subject matter of this article. At the same time it meets the need to make this decription i.e. the need to organize properly the understanding of electroprosumerism. Proposed is the canonical set of balance envelopes being used as the basic electroprosumerism research instrument. Initial analyses conducted with the use of this envelopes set lead to the rich in consequences practical result i.e. that they show possbility of autonomisation (transition into operation in off-system mode) of the electric energy market: at the LV level for about 30% of the Polish population (villages with the number of inhabitants less than 1 000), at the MV level for about 20% (municipalities and cities to 50 000 inhabitants) and at the 110 kV level for about 20% (cities with 50-500 000 inhabitants). The presented shocking results would be even more shocking if not the energy efficiency of electroprosumerism . And so, this efficiency is 3-times higher as regards end markets (of electrical energy, heat and transport fuels) of the WEK fossil fuels power industry (this concerns Poland, but in the world this multiplicity is now to a large degree the same). Further on, it is 6-times higher as regards the chemical energy markets of the WEK fossil fuels power industry (in Poland and similarly in the world, but there we talk about the chemical and nuclear energy markets).
Keywords: energy industry, transformation, breakthrough mode, electroprosumerism
From analysis of profiles on (WSE)system balance envelopes to guidelines concerning the design of energy mix structure – case study
Transformation of the Polish energy industry needs a change in methods of electric energy supply. Hence, extremely important is the use of synergy resulting from application of many generation technologies and also electric energy storage as well as shaping the demand pattern. Here are examined four characterisitic balancing zones - from rural areas to the city of Warsaw. Every one of them possesses a characteristic structure of generation sources matching its demand profile and every one is analysed with the help of simulation using demand and production profiles characteristic for electroprosumerism.
Keywords: electroprosumerism, simulative verification, local self-government units
Andrzej Jurkiewicz, Dariusz Wereszczyński, Marcin Fice
Micro biogas power plant (µEB) on-off grid type with a network of STD terminals in the (WSE)system dedicated for testing in a sandbox – case study
The acquired balance results for an exemplary rural LV network in OK(WSE-µBP) envelope show the great potential of µEB plants technology. The carried out analysis revealed technological possibilities to build energy balanced (WSE)systems. Achieved imbalances are not critical from the point of view of accessable technologies. Further balance iterations (imbalance profiles) at the investment stage and then during the time of regular operation will enable the pretenders-innovators, from equipment and IT segment, to properly match their products and generate an offer meeting the needs of entities connected to (WSE)systems. The critical, from the point of view of technical infrastructure, is the STD terminal and its certification.
Keywords: micro biogas power plant, electronic power converter, electroprosumerism, (WSE)system, balance envelope
Krystian Leonard Chrzan
Composite insulation crossbars for compact HV power lines
Recalled is that prototypes of insulation crossbars which are used on compact power lines were produced in Poland already 45 years ago. Composite insulation crossbars enable construction of compact power lines of reduced distances between phase conductors and from grounded supporting structures. New solutions of overhead compact power lines make use of aesthetic tubular poles of less inductance than the traditional latticed ones. Insulators produced presently by Zapel company can be utilised as elements of insulation crossbars.
Keywords: compact HV power lines, composite crossbars, insulators produced by Zapel