Marcin SZEGA, Andrzej ZIĘBIK
Validated measurements as the basis for energy efficiency evaluation
Provisions of selected European Union directives concerning the assessment of energy efficiency improvement in the context of using the measurement results for this purpose were presented. Attention was paid to the ambiguity of the provisions, especially in the field of determining the uncertainty of measurements, which have a significant impact on the uncertainty of the calculated savings effects. The criteria that should be met by the measurement data used to assess energy efficiency improvement are not specified. The lack of information in both directives and other documents on the possibility of increasing the reliability of measurement results was emphasized. Against this background, the possibility of reducing the measurement uncertainty by using the advanced data validation and reconciliation method was indicated. A description of the method and its mathematical fundamentals are presented. In order to illustrate it in practice, a computational example has been developed and presented for the validation of measurements of a selected thermal process.
Keywords: energy efficiency, increasing the reliability of measurement results, advanced data validation and reconciliation method, description of the method and its mathematical basis
Four electroprosumerism markets – an answer to the 2020 structural crisis
(a wall giving rise to energy breakthrough), a challenge and prospects of 2050
The end of 2020 clearly shows that there is no other solution – especially in Poland, but not only – than transformation of the energy sector in the breakthrough innovation mode with the use of electroprosumerism markets. These are exactly the markets which have potential of the best and carrying the smallest risk realization of two EU 2050 political goals: climate neutrality and the European Green New Deal. In case of the first one the point is that we want to achieve the most efficient realization with the lowest cost possible. In the second case it is about realization being the most innovative in the sphere of technical development and the most effective and balanced in the social sphere. Moreover, the electroprosumerism markets pave the way to the emphatic and progressive society and – in view of their properties and considering their big potential value – they will be one of the biggest areas and the strongest factors of shaping it. It is a chance – particularly important in case of local societies – to mitigate the risk of social alienation which is connected with the unavoidable coming of industry 4.0 and the AI (artificial intelligence). And together with the development of electroprosumerism markets the most powerful corporate community – the one of the large scale fossil fuels power industry – will become gradually weaker as it is no longer the community appropriate for the XXI century.
Keywrods: energy industry, markets, transformation, breakthrough mode, electroprosumerism
Modelling of energy industry transformation trajectories to electroprosumerism in selected front-ends
Achieving climate neutrality needs transformation of the whole energy industry within the next 30 years. This transformation does not only comprise energy sectors (WEK-PK) but also results in total change in methods of utilization of electric energy which is – because of its biggest exergy – dominating in the electroprosumerism (EP) and practically the only one. The present condition A(2020) of the Polish energy industry is well known. In two PPTE2050 [1, 2] bulletins described are the driving heuristics of RES electric energy after realization, across divides, of energy transformation to electroprosumerism TETIP(A→B) in the 2050 horizon – state B(2050vEP). Modelled are transformation trajectories of selected front-ends (from village councils to the whole country) with the aim to determine dynamics needed for changing the canonic set of generation technologies EP.
Keywords: transformation trajectory, electroprosumerism, simulative verification, local government entities
Energy audit in power generation, industry and municipal economy as the diagnostic tool
in pursuit of electroprosumerism
Energy audit is the basis for determination of energy and ecology efffects of a project serving the improvement of energy efficiency. Concluded is, that it is worth to consider the need of redefining such tool like the energy audit in the context of striving for climate neutrality and electroprosumerism, that in turn is one of its key pillars. An attempt is made to define new needs which should be included into the energy audit conducted for sectors of energy, industry and municipal economy. In all these sectors a bill of environmental costs should be widespread both in manufacture of a product and organization functionning. It is very important, especially in the areas aiming for energy self-sufficiency.
Keywords: energy audit, power generation, industry, municipal economy, climate neutrality, electroprosumerism
European Green Deal – a substantive basis for climate neutrality in terms of raw material management
The European Green Deal assumes the achievement of climate neutrality by 2050. There is much talk now about this issue and mechanisms leading to this goal but next to nothing is mentioned about methods of progress monitoring and assessment of particular technologies at the stage of implementing the new green deal. Therefore, it is worth devoting some time to consider and review issues related to the pursuit of the goal, i.e.: climate neutrality. The goal in this case may be defined as a kind of idealized state, which we should strive to achieve as it is our duty to future generations. Yet, this approach forces the application of engineering tools to allow complex estimation of activities undertaken in relation to the assessment of the impact of the specific technology and product on the natural environment. Due to a great diversity of aspects inextricably linked with various types of economic activity, the paper focuses only on a narrow concern, i.e.: energy generation/processing, which is, however, vital to the whole economy.
Keywords: European Green Deal, climate neutrality, exergy, thermo-ecological cost, Life Cycle Assessment, environmental cost, electroprosumerism, raw material management
Piotr PLIS, Andrzej OCIEPA
Energy management improvement according to ISO 50001
The energy management system according to ISO 50001 is a useful and effective tool supporting energy management in an organization. The system brings energy, economic and environmental effects, and thanks to compliance with the commonly used and standardized tools, it facilitates the fulfilment of the valid legal requirements. The paper presents possible options of implementation of ISO 50001 to improve energy management processes in industrial plants. Based on the authors’ experience, directions of the use of the energy management system to meet the statutory obligation to perform an energy audit are indicated, pointing out new possibilities for organizations which have the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) certification.
Keywords: energy management system, ISO 50001, energy economy, EMAS certification, energy audit of an organization, energy effectiveness, energy review
Testing the durability of repair welded joints of pipelines
The paper presents the tests of repair welded joints which allowed an assessment of the degree of material degradation and their suitability to be repaired by welding. The loss of durability of pressure components is caused mainly by their incorrect use, frequently connected with construction defects. It turns out, however, that durability is also significantly affected by repair processes which require welding of materials. That’s why, when making a repair decision, proper material diagnostics of steam pipelines, especially after the design operating time, and knowledge of the degree of material structure degradation are of vital importance. The paper presents the results of material testing of exemplary repair welded joints made of 13HMF steel (14MoV6-3) and 10H2M steel (10CrMo910).
Keywords: pipelines, material diagnostics of steam pipelines, tests of repair welded joints, assessment of the degree of material degradation