Distributed energy sources – the perspective of a grid operator
The development of distributed energy sources is a desirable and inevitable process because their presence is bringing economic and social benefits. It will bring them to an even greater extent in the future and will become the basis for development of an innovative knowledge-based economy. In order not to slow down the dissemination process, one should also be aware of existing technical barriers and necessity to solve them in a systemic manner.
Keywords: energy cluster, distributed energy sources, renewables, grid operator
Methodology and a universal mathematical model in a "continuous" record of the economic effectiveness analysis of any company activities including production temporal variability and standstills of production processes
Universal nomograms of economic effectiveness, developed with the use of the presented here mathematical model and the obtained with their use positive or negative results of any business undertaking estimative analyses, will be entirely sufficient for making final investment decisions. With this model one can develop universal nomograms of its functioning economic effectiveness with no need to elaborate more detailed models. These nomograms will enable rapid economic effectiveness estimation of any business undertaking. And such model is just presented in this article.
Keywords: business undertaking, analysis of economic effectiveness, mathematical model, results of estimative analyses
Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant – Romanian experience with CANDU technology
Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (Centrala Nucleară de la Cernavodă) in Romania – using the Canadian technology of power reactors CANDU 6 – is the only one of this type working on the European continent. In such reactors the fuel is natural uranium and heavy water works as the coolant and the moderator. NPP Cernavoda covers about 20% of electric energy demand in the Romanian national power system, contributing to the CO2 emission reduction by around 10 million tonnes per year. At present, there are two nuclear units (of 706 MW capacity each) working in the plant, commissioned in the years 1996 and 2007 respectively. It was originally planned to build three more units but finally it was decided to build only two in the future. Presented is the history of how the NPP Cernavoda originated and its up to now conducted operation. Described is extensively the Canadian technology of CANDU power reactors.
Keywords: Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Canadian technology of CANDU 6 power reactors, heavy water, deuterium, uranium, nuclear fuel, calandria
WEK-PK energy industry: what was good for the world for 300 years and what has not been fulfilled in the last two decades followed by the answer (new concept for the rest of the XXI century to be realised in the 2050 horizon): Poland's TETIP transformation (in the breakthrough mode) to ELECTROPROSUMERISM
The article has got the status of the first (chronologically) one contained in the Encyclopaedic dictionary of electroprosumerism on the PPTE2050 platform. It is divided into three parts which in turn are divided into sections and paragraphs. Sections have got titles but thery are not numbered. Paragraphs in every part have got separate, uniform numbering. The first part is dedicated to the synthesis of the electroprosumerism fundamental force in context of social processes; this force is judged (it is the hypothesis) as the one exceeding the importance of political forces influence on social processes. The second part concentrates on the need to create two systems of TETIP transformation legal regulations: the descending process (phasing out of WEK-PK in the area of the present Energy Law Act) and the emerging one (building of electroprosumerism in the area of the needed new Electricity Act). The third (retrospective) part presents the synthesis of the diagnose which is conditioning chances and threats to electroprosumerism in the light of structural reform of WEK-PK energy industry – from the beginning of the State's political reform (1989), through switching the National Energy System from East to West (1995) to adoption of Energy Law Act (1997) – and in the light of governmental energy policy in the first two decades of the XXI century gradually realizing the complete divergence from principles of this energy industry reform. The article ends with the updated (extended) version of the List of the basic names and acronyms of TETIP transformation.
Keywords: energy industry, transformation, electroprosumerism, political forces, diagnose, encyclopaedic dictionary
Jan Popczyk, Krzysztof Bodzek, Radosław Gawlik
Territorial Plan of Wałbrzych Subregion Just Transition.
Energy transition to electroprosumerism
The Territorial Plan of Just Transition creates possibility to implement solutions enabling achievement of climate neutrality by Wałbrzych Subregion in conformity with the EU's 2050 Agenda. The funds available under the Just Transition Fund are a strong, potential support for realization of this big project concerning the Subregion energy transition in economic, social and environmental dimensions. The article presents the concept of achieving the electroprosumerism in the range of RES re-electrification. This concept is substantiated by conducted analyses and provides practical guidance on shaping electroprosumerism markets in the Subregion.
Keywords: local authorities, Wałbrzych Subregion, marginal costs, electroprosumerism, employment in the RES re-electrification markets
Non-technical summary (addressed to the general public).
Nietechniczne streszczenie artykułu prof. Jana Popczyka pt. Od działań kryzysowych 2020 do elektroprosumeryzmu 2050. Transformacja energetyki w trybie przełomowym
Effective transformation of the energy industry needs rapid growth of social competences. It will improve better utilisation of local resources and implementation of the necessary technological innovations in energy generation already at a household level. There is a strong need to adopt a new Electricity Act which will free the pretenders to electric energy markets from inconvenient and obsolete legal regulations. It will also enable to treat the 2050 climate neutrality not as the subjection of the Polish energy industry but as the opportunity to develop the country. Described are here theoretical fundamentals of the concept of electroprosumerism including its four markets. Identified is the structural crisis in energy industry (and in mining). Presented are cognitive errors that obstruct to conduct transformation and emerge from this crisis. Proposed are indispensable reforms (resulting in the Electricity Act) in which a big role will be played by sandboxes.
Keywords: energy industry transformation, electric monism, electroprosumerism, prosumer, Electricity Act
Michael T. Jobczyk
Sergi Transformer Protector – the most modern system for safety of transformer operation
A transformer is one of the most expensive devices enabling transmission and distribution of electricity at the desired voltage level. Its widespread use in power grid systems draws attention to the need to ensure failure-free operation. However, failures that do occur can lead to significant technical, environmental and financial damages. Especially dangerous are fires initiated by short circuits inside oil transformers, in extreme cases leading to the tank burst. In order to prevent such situations, one of the most effective methods of specialized safety automation should be applied – Sergi Transformer Protector – being the most modern safety system of this type on the market and gaining increasing popularity in our country.
Keywords: transformer, need to ensure failure-free operation, Sergi Transformer Protector – the most modern system for safety of transformer operation