Gerhard BARTODZIEJ, Michał TOMASZEWSKI
Problems with building small biogas plants in Poland
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 77
Discussed are conditions necessary to build small municipal biogas plants. Indicated is necessity to: secure full profitability of exploitation process (with the state financial help for investment process), enter upon a wide information campaign concerning biomass utilization with the aim to gain social acceptance to develop biogas plants, organize biomass supplies through the system of selective waste collection and execution of environmental protection requirements from all biomass producers, improve formal procedures as well as complete bills and decrees relating to the system of extra financing and certificates to ensure competitiveness in the renewable energy open market of electric energy and heat produced in biogas plants, educate specialists and advisers (for companies and households) to run biogas plants, control production and troubleshoot processes.
Keywords: biogas plants, municipal waste utilization, investments
Aleksandra BORSUKIEWICZ-GOZDUR, Władysław NOWAK
Suggested solutions for power plants with different variants of steam power installations for Geotermia Podhalańska
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 80
Presented are possibilities of a specified, having parameters of the water feeding Geotermia Podhalańska SA, geothermal water stream development and of this energy conversion efficiency into electric current. The simplest solutions, commonly named ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle), are the most often applied ones in development of low temperature geothermal energy resources. To raise the level of geothermal energy development i.e. increase the cooling ratio of the pumped geothermal water, we can use heat and power station solutions but, depending on a climate zone, it is effective usually in strictly determined seasons of the year. The alternative can be a proper selection of a steam power installation configuration. Suggested and analysed are basic working parameters and calculation results for power plants with hybrid power installations as a way to effectively utilize the geothermal water energy. Comparative analysis results show clearly that the selection of a steam power installation solution should depend on local energy resources (type of biomass available)
Keywords: geothermal power plant, Getoermia Podhalańska SA, ORC
Tadeusz CHMIELNIAK, Henryk ŁUKOWICZ, Andrzej KOCHANIEWICZ, Marcin MRONCZ
Supercritical coal-fired units. Directions of improving efficiency and reducing CO2
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 84
Discussed is a positive influence of implementing the flue gas heat recovery on fuel consumption reduction in conditions of constant power capacity of the unit equal to 460 MW. Additionally, apart from fuel economy, emission of CO2 decreases while with the same level of fuel consumption the unit capacity increases in comparison with the no-recovery system. We can obtain better effects in case of brown coal-fired units that result from bigger amount of a boiler outlet gases and their higher temperature. That is why the amount of heat, that can be used to warm up the condensate, is approx. two times bigger in comparison with a hard coal-fired unit of the same power capacity. Additional application of the CO2 removal system will cause considerable reduction of electric energy production efficiency.
Keywords: overcritical hard coal-fired units, efficiency improvement, CO2 emission reduction
CAES power plants
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 88
The planned development of wind power plants in Poland makes it necessary to start research work on energy storage. Power plants equipped with CAES system have already reached technical maturity and there would be no problem in constructing them in Poland. All elements composing the CAES are known and applied in the Polish industry - our scientific and design potential enables to actively join the research work on this technology led in the EU countries, and beginning of this cooperation has become now an urgent necessity.
Keywords: energy storage, power systems, wind power plants
Franciszek GRAMATYKA, Piotr OSTROWSKI
SJBS method of industrial steam boilers NOx emission reduction with the application of steam jet ventilators
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 92
Presented is the SJBS system as a method of NOx emission reduction and optimization of a combustion process in industrial pulverized coal- and gas-fired boilers. The applied solution uses steam jet ventilators to feed OFA air into the boiler furnace. Presented are preliminary results of the study on SJBS system application effects.
Keywords: NOx emission, steam boiler, SJBS system
František JANÍČEK, Igor TOMIŠ, Peter KOVAĽ, Ivan DARUĽA, Juraj ŠEDIVÝ, Igor ŠULC
The potential of renewable Energy sources and their possible involvement in the production of electricity in Slovakia
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 96
Presented are options for replacing, over a long time period, the current energy mix coming from non-renewable, conventional sources with energy coming solely from renewable sources (in the context of Slovakian environment) and its possible combination with nuclear energy in a 50-year time horizon. Energy consumption by households and companies to fulfil their transportation and industrial needs is determined to be the most vital. All these plans are made with the aim for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, energy security, renewable energy sources power engineering, Slovakia, renewable energy sources potential, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydro power, nuclear power, fossil fuels
Identification of flowing fluid transient temperature
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 102
Presented are two methods to determine the transient flowing fluid temperature. Both can be applied for on-line determining fluid temperature changes as a function of time, in steady heat exchange conditions and good measurement repeatability. After determining thermometers' time constants as a function of fluid velocity, the proposed methods can also be applied in conditions of changing temperature and velocity of the fluid when time constants change during measurement.
Keywords: transient temperature measurement, measurement methods, industrial thermometers
Zdzisław KABZA, Lesław J. KWIATKOWSKI
Investment monitoring an economic chance for transforming power industry
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 105
Analysed is an investment monitoring technology as an economic chance to improve realisation processes and increase effectiveness of investment funds utilization in the perspective of an installation lifetime. Indicated are implementation vulnerable spots confirmed by implementation of the latest technological and informatic solutions. It is vital to create conditions for analitically objective quantitative assessment of occurrences and processes determinig their economic effectiveness. The offered solution contains a complete set of informatic tools ensuring effective control of the investment process logistics and a qualitative new standard of the as-built documentation.
Keywords:investment monitoring, monitoring technologies
Radomir KACZMAREK, Aleksander A. STACHEL
Criteria for selection of low-boiling substances, considering their applicability as circulation agents in geothermal power plants
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 108
Discussed is the influence of low-boiling substances thermophysical properties, basing on analysis of some selected ones e.g. organic compounds that can be circulation agents in the so-called low-temperature power plants, on the output power and, thereby, their applicability in such type of power plants. Circulation agent works in a low-temperature steam power plant in a closed cycle and its contact with the surrounding environment is possible only as a result of a system failure.
Keywords:geothermal power plants, low-temperature power plants, low-boiling point circulating agents
Ludvík KOVAL, Mojmír VRTEK
Determination of a PV panel optimal operating point
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 112
Made is a power estimation of a 20 kW photovoltaic system connected to a LV network. Given are basic data concerning manufacture and efficiency. Presented are exemplary process runs of power and energy generation and the system possible application in extreme cases during a year. The basic discussed problem concerns determination of a PV panel optimal operating point.
Keywords:photovoltaic (PV) panels, power estimation of a PV system, operating point optimization
Examples of heating turbines modernization
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 115
Proposed is a method of reconstruction of a back-pressure reaction-type turbine flow system with the aim to increase its efficiency in conditions of the lowered to 45% of its nominal value steam jet what is caused by a constant reduction of heat demand. A turbine internal efficiency in these conditions and with an unaltered flow system would drop below 50%. As an effect of the proposed modernization, power efficiency of such TG unit will increase by around 65% compared to a turbine power before the flow system reconstruction.
Keywords:back-pressure heating turbines, blade system modernization, electric power increase
Włodzimierz OGULEWICZ, Daniel WĘCEL, Grzegorz WICIAK, Henryk ŁUKOWICZ
Research installation: photovoltaic (PV) cell – hydrogen generator – fuel cell
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 117
Presented is, on the basis of experince gained, a research installation prepared by the team of authors: PV cell - hydrogen generator - fuel cell. The main task of the project is building and optimization of demonstrative installation consisting of low-temperature fuel cells PEMFC, PV cells and electrolysis cells. Assumption is made that the obtained research results will be the basis of possible transferring them onto installations of bigger power values. The research, being the object of the project, creates innovatory solutions especially in the field of distributed power generation. Obtaining reliable informations about the object will be the practical reaching of the aim because of possibility to recognize real characteristics and cooperation ability of fuel cells, electrolysers and PV cells.
Keywords:hydrogen technologies, fuel cells, PV cells
Drying of brown coal for the needs of energy combustion
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 120
Presented are selected problems connected with the brown coal drying process for the needs of energy combustion. Discussed are brown coal properties as well as the mechanism of its drying. Characterized is the state of knowledge concerning the process. Presented are main assumptions of the realized research and development project. Preliminary results of the research carried out on an experimental laboratory installation confirm purposefulness of this research activity.
Keywords:brown coal, coal drying, power plant efficiency improvement
Energy storage system CAES and wind power engineering
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 126
CAES systems are an effictive electric energy storage technology and make an alternative to energy accumulation in a pumped storage power plant. There is a possibility of cooperation between a wind power plant and the CAES one, provided that the proper location for both technologies as well as maximum costs of building and exploitation of such hybrid system are determined. It is necessary to first build a model and then implement a software to carry out multivariate effectiveness analyses.
Keywords:wind power plants, energy storage, CAES system
Andrzej RUSIN, Adam WOJACZEK
Analysis of power units operating hazards with the use of SKOR program
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 129
Presented is the first version of SKOR program that enables evaluation of technical hazards caused by boiler and turbine elements of an individual power unit. It can be the real help for operation and repair services of a power plant. Informations gained with this program enable observing the rate of operating hazard level changes and also indentification of elements and subsystems creating the highest level of technical hazards.
Keywords:power units, operating hazard, computer program
Jan TALER, Szczepan LUBECKI, Tomasz SOBOTA
Steam pipeline optimum heating
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 132
Power units start-ups involve heating processes of steam pipelines. Steam temperature rate is of great importance because of thermal stresses in pipeline walls. Presented is a method for determining optimum time of heating medium temperature changes. These changes occurring at the pipeline inlet, are determined from the solution of the Volterra integral equation of the first kind.
Keywords:power boilers, steam pipelines, steam pipeline optimum heating
Respect for energy and energy safety
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 135
Processes of reducing energy consumption and increasing the effectiveness of its utilization can be carried out by all energy consumers, including producers of different forms of energy. At every stage of every process needing energy application it is possible to reduce energy consumption and energy losses. Thus, processes connected with respect for energy refer to all economic and social life areas where energy is used. Social attitude to environment and its threats expressed by, among the others, rational use of energy becomes now one of the determinants of civilization progress.
Keywords:electric energy and heat utilization effectiveness, energy consumption and energy losses reduction, environmental protection
Sławomir WIŚNIEWSKI, Aleksandra BORSUKIEWICZ-GOZDUR
Assessment of the work efficiency of a gas turbine generating unit coupled with supercritical ORC cycle power installation
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 139
Presented is the possibility to improve work efficiency of a gas turbine generating unit by application of an additional Organic Rankine Cycle utilizing the enthalpy of exhaust gases from a turbine. It is assumed that in ORC installation a supercritical cycle is realized. Analysed is a 5,25 MW natural gas fired turbine unit and in this analysis several organic agents like decane, benzene, cyclohexane or toluene are taken into consideration. Exemplary results for gas turbine unit with ORC cycle for cyclohexane (steam temp. before the turbine in ORC cycle - 4000C) are as follows: system electric efficiency - 41,6% (gas turbine only - 30,5%), system electric power - 7,17 MW (power growth in relation to the power of gas turbine only - about 37%). Obtained results confirm possibility to improve the gas turbine unit work efficiency thanks to application of additional ORC cycle.
Keywords:ORC, supercritical ORC cycle, organic agents, gas turbine
Prototype of a system for local positioning of the head of an ultrasonic thickness gauge
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 142
The presented prototype of a system for local positioning enriched with the transfer of measurement data allows to eliminate human factor in the data transferring process, which factor is usually a source of incorrect results. It also enables radical shortening of the time needed for elaboration of overhaul decisions because of direct transferring of the data to a homogeneous programistic environment basing on an object model of the installation. According to the plans, the system operator in future will be able to observe graphical representation of results in a real time and not only the current measurement results.
Keywords:power boiler diagnosing, ultrasonic thickness gauge, measurements
Sławomir ZATOR, Zdzisław KABZA, Lesław KWIATKOWSKI
Hybrid techniques for measuring of displacements of technical installation objects
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 144
When operating a power unit we must be prepared for occurrence of deformations in its installations. Especially dangerous are the changes in installations of big power boilers where displacements, resulting from the cold to hot state changes, can reach even 70 cm. Dangerous deformations of pipeline constructions amounting to several degrees can also occur. Discussed is a project of an integrated system for measuring migrations of a boiler installation geometric quantities. The authors' aim is to implement the complex technological solution allowing the effective application of hybrid techniques for migration measurements.
Keywords:power boilers, boiler deformations, migration measurements of a boiler installation geometric quantities
Smart metering and demand management
Energetyka 2011, nr 2, p. 148
Discussed are various aspects of implementing in Poland the „smart metering" system i.e. two-way communication with electric energy meters. It is being implemented not only to automate the process of financial settlements with customers and remote data readout but also to be able to make use of surplus values which are given to you by two-way data transmission and possibility to influence the customer. But it is difficult to successfully implement the demand management in smart metering systems on the Polish grounds. We must reconcile ourselves to unbundling consequences. Still, it would be advisable to properly define reciprocal relations connected with realization of some features of information systems offering customer demand management.
Keywords:smart metering, electric energy, electric energy meters, demand management