Dilemma of the European power sector - to be conservative or revolutionary
The latest (eighth) annual survey of opinions expressed by leading senior executives working for power companies (PWC 2006) states that energy industry has to face its biggest challenge of modern times: lack of balance between supply and demand, infrastructure inadequacy and emission restrictions. While coal tops the list of fuels it is expected that combination of technological progress and high energy prices will increase the contribution of nuclear power in the energy mix. Renewables will never meet basic power demand and only big companies will be able to finance necessary investments.
Karol STROJWĄS, Marcin BOCZEK
Automation of MV distribution networks with the use of overhead load break switches and radio-controlled electric drives
Described is shortly the 55 years' history of ZMER Kalisz company. Explained is the idea of radio-controlled load break switches. Specified are components of radio-control system used for switches produced by ZMER Kalisz: overhead load break switches, motor drives and complete construction sets for building and modernization of radio-controlled switch points.
Quality, tradition, modernity.
25 years of Zakłady Remontowe Energetyki Kraków Sp. z o.o. activity
ZRE Kraków activity, considering its many years' experience and high level of specialization, is mainly aimed at power sector needs. The company specializes in complex repairs and modernizations of steam boilers and water heaters as well as condensing, industrial and heat-generating plant turbines together with auxiliary and automatic control equipment. Boiler repair service realized by ZRE comprise replacement of the whole installation including auxiliary elements, pipework and fittings, automatic control equipment and measurement systems as well as specialized repairs of selected elements like boiler drums. Highly specialistic ZRE staff qualifications including the ones authorized by the UE are really valued by companies realizing export contracts.
Strategy of LV and MV power networks' development
Mentioned are problems concerning determining of medium term LV and MV electric ground network development strategy. Described are existing and anticipated LV and MV ground networks' structures. Attention is paid to the problem of ground networks' optimization and modernization which is a very important thing to determine distribution networks' development strategy. Given are basic assumptions for TSEJM calculation program. Enclosed is a fragment of data base print-out used for optimization calculations concerning ground networks' analysed sector.
Energy efficiency as one of economy efficiency aspects
Presented is opinion on energy efficiency as one of the superior category - called economy efficiency - aspects. On the basis of economy efficiency the definition of energy efficiency is formulated which systematizes its previous domestic interpretations. Defined are economy efficiency categories. There is proved, with the aid of proposed efficiency definition and one of its elements - supplied energy, that only part of activities resulting in reducing the quantity of energy supplied can be treated as the rational energy saving ones.
POWER INDUSTRY AKADEMY
Stanisław CADER, Bogumił DUDEK, Roman FOBER, Tadeusz GONTARZ, Witold WIŚNIEWSKI
7TH session - Live line works on power units and installations
- Sixteenth lecture - Protection against falls from height during working on power units and live line works
Depending on function the fall protection system performs it consists of elements having different physical, constructional and functional features. Every fall protection system is composed of three basic elements: safety harness, connecting and shock absorbing sub-assembly and the anchoring one. Described is their construction and application. Important element of the equipment, making works on power units easier, are ropes. Mentioned are works performed with the help of ropes. Given are practical instructions concerning ropes and knots. Presented are the most frequently used knots, their shortcomings and advantages.
The essence of coupled-up electric energy production in the UE markets
Presented are legal and economic instruments backing-up the co-generation development in the UE states. Mentioned are co-generation helping mechanisms in several UE states. Given are basic parameters characterizing coupled-up electric energy production in the UE. Rigorous implementation of all energy saving measures accepted after 2001 can enable the UE states to come back to 1990 energy consumption level.
Reactive-power compensation problems in feed systems with non-linear receivers
Presented is negative influence of generating higher harmonics non-linear receivers (inverters) on power supply network as well as on automatically regulated capacitor bank assigned to improve the power factor. Given is resonance effect analysis. Ascertained in the conclusion is - among other things - that selecting capacitor bank appropriate to the value of reactive-power compensation, full network analysis should be carried through including higher harmonics measurement.
Influence of new lighting technologies on networks and electric installations
Attention is paid to problems concerning the draw of deformated, non-sine shaped currents by new sources and lighting systems. Characterized is influence of new light sources on feed systems and other electric energy receivers. Mentioned are European and American standards and recommendations referring to the discussed subject as well as limits for higher harmonics currents and methods to confine higher harmonics.
POWER INDUSTRY AND ECOLOGY
Tomasz GOLEC, Krzysztof REMISZEWSKI, Bartosz ŚWIĄTKOWSKI, Marcin BŁESZNOWSKI
Pulverized biomass burners
Pulverized biomass burner has been developed at the Institute of Power Engineering basing on many years' experience in designing of pulverized coal burners. Results of investigations have demonstrated the importance of fuel sample preparation for combustion process. Thus every burner construction undergoes special optimization procedure with the use of numerical simulation and laboratory tests on 0,5 MW thermal power test stand. The burner is assigned to work with different types of biomass which differ in particle sizes and shapes as well as in physical and chemical properties. Depending on requirements the burner can be designed for thermal power ranging from 0,3 to 30 MW with turn down ratio 1÷3. Results of the investigations were used to design two wood dust fired turbulent burners at fibreboards company FIBRIS SA in Przemyśl. The burners of changeable thermal power in range from 1 to 3 MW were adapted for operation with coal fired stoker boiler OR-32.