Herbert Leopold Gabryś
A look at 2007 Polish power industry in the aspect of consolidation against a background of 2006 results
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 399
Energy reality of the world, and also the Polish one, is nowadays defined first of all by the still growing power demand taking into consideration consequences for the natural environment. A document should be soon drawn up, called either the next stage of the consolidation program or even simply a strategy for the Polish power industry. This strategy would take into account dynamic changes and very difficult challenges arising from the UE requirements as well as conditions existing after the first consolidation stage and opening of the electric energy market.
The essence of heat and power cogeneration in the UE markets
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 404
Heat and power cogeneration is the technology applied because of substantial advantages in the field of power engineering, ecology and economy. It has also got a positive influence on improving the energy safety. Main fuel used in the UE cogeneration is natural gas which enables high effectiveness of its utilisation what in turn contributes to better environment protection and helps in stabilizing the UE energy balance. Therefore the UE undertakes intensive works intending to support the development of electric energy and heat cogeneration.
Mariusz Pawlak, Krzysztof Jędraszczyk, Jacek Karczewski
Implementation of output governor diagnosis system
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 414
Condensing turbine control systems perform very responsible control duties as they are installed on high rating power units. These units take part in power system controlling process so their incorrect operation would have influence on the whole system. Thus continuous diagnosing of measuring tracks and output governor actuator functioning are of particular importance. Implemented in the electric power station Adamów on power unit Nr 5 system, based on measuring tracks analytic redundancy, makes the power plant operation more unfailing and improves the power ACS reliability.
Present and anticipated certificate systems in power industry
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 421
Certificates and their functioning mechanisms are really advantageous for power industry. They are also commonly accepted by the UE member states. But if we want to use them efficiently there is a need to implement changes and supplements mostly in the sphere of law. Described in details are green certificates as support for renewable energy sources, red certificates supporting heat and power cogeneration, white certificates testifying energy savings obtained as a result of implementing particular projects and also blue certificates serving to diminish the risk of investments in new generation sources.
Electrolytic „cold" nuclear fusion
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 428
Laboratory device in which nuclear fusion reaction in room temeperature was obtained was a galvanic cell. Given is detailed historic outline of cells. Described is the Pons and Fleischmann experiment in which specially prepared palladium electrodes were immersed in heavy water (deuterium oxide). Given is the USA Government Energy Department attitude to the room temperature nuclear fusion (2004) as well as the American Physics Society symposium remarks (2007). Specified are companies interested in cold fusion development.
Hydrogen or rather electric energy
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 432
Processes of obtaining hydrogen from mineral fuels – especially from coal – must be related to the processes of CO2 emission during hydrogen production as well as depositing (so called „sequestration") CO2 with the aim to isolate it from the atmosphere. If this condition is not fulfilled we cannot say that using hydrogen as a fuel will contribute to reducing of CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Groundless is also the optimism concerning perspectives to elaborate general solution of problems referring to climate protection against hothouse gases emission as well as the more and more difficult access to oil and gas by producing hydrogen fuel.
Anna Skorek, Andrzej Szlęk
Influence of pipeline insulation technology on heat transportation cost
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 435
The most economical – in respect of exploitation costs – are heat distribu-tion networks made of pre-insulated pipelines. Investment costs can make a substantial part of heating system total functioning costs. The presently given directions for designing heat distribution networks recommend assuming constant heating medium velocity for the whole network. However it is proved that the heating medium optimum velocity is not identical for the whole network but it changes depending on transferred power and pipeline insulation techno-logy.
Krystyna Przybulewska, Agnieszka Foltyn
Microbial contamination of fuels collected directly from filling stations' distributors in Szczecin and its surroundings
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 440
Due to very few microbial studies upon fuels collected directly from distributors, the aim of present work was to evaluate the number of microorganisms in products commercially available in selected filling stations in Szczecin and its surroundings. Samples of crude oil products used for tests were collected from 17 gas stations distributors. Determined was presence of bacteria and fungi (mesophilic and thermophilic) in media, heterotrophic bacteria precipitating iron in liquid medium and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in samples of various petroleum products. Fuels collected directly from distributors often revealed the presence of microorganisms. Mesophilic bacteria and fungi were the most frequent but also thermophilic bacteria and iron-precipitating bacteria were present. No fuel sample contained sulfur-reducing bacteria. Higher microbial contamination was found in diesel oils.
Tomasz BIALIK, Krzysztof WRÓBEL, Mariusz TALAGA
Modern tools in diagnosis of electric power system emergency condition
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 447
Mentioned is the problem concerning efficient analysis of failures and disturbances which can occur in an industrial plant electric power system. Presented are the latest abilities of Energotest-Energopomiar equipment and production software destined to support the electric power system exploitation personnel in carrying on these analyses.
External factors influence on current-carrying capacity in an electric power cable line
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 451
Discussed are problems relating to analysis of cable line damages which occurred after putting the line into operation in one of industrial plants. The case under consideration concerns a line built of single-core cables in polvinite insulation of 3,6/6 kV nominal voltage.
Systematic supervision of turbine oils quality during operation
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 454
Presented is turbine oils condition monitoring and supervising system elaborated and used by Energopomiar. Discussed are examples of tests carried out in order to give reasons for the needed exploitation oil diagnosing frequency. Oil supervision is not only aimed at evaluation of its possible further operational use but it is also a source of valuable informations about turbine technical condition.
Jerzy Dobosiewicz, Krzysztof Brunné
Ultrasonic measurement of oxides layer thickness on superheater coil inner surface
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 460
According to data found in specialistic literature the most common reason of boiler outages are leakages in live and secondary steam superheater coils. Damages of superheater coil pipes are caused by creep process often assisted by corrosion and erosion processes. With the aim to reduce costs Pro Novum company carries on evaluations of superheater coils condition applying, among the others, the method to measure inner layer oxides thickness.
Pipeline route influence on its running safety
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 464
Non-dewatered pipeline during its putting into operation is subject to water hammer which can cause serious break-down – that is why we must have in view effective pipeline dewatering. The effective dewatering can be ensured by either systematic preventive actions or pipeline route correction. Safe pipeline operation requires neutralization of counterhead recurrences or, if they still exist, effective pipeline dewatering. It can be obtained as a result of periodical inspections and correction of fastening elements regulations based on survey analysis. Removing of counterhead negative exploitation resultsrequires pipeline route correction or installing an automatic dewatering system.
Alfred Śliwa, Paweł Gawron
Corrosion damages of steam superheater coils
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 470
Recently observed increase of superheater coils damages is closely relevant to the fact that these boiler elements work from time to time in temperatures considerably exceeding not only their calculated values but also the allowable ones. It concerns mainly secondary steam coils. Unstable power unit operating conditions cause periodical flow of smaller steam quantity of lower pressure that has an influence on pipe walls temperature increase, their thickness decrement and oxide layer gain. Excessive oxide layer thickness increment causes the temperature metal structure degradation what in consequence leads to superheater coil pipes damages.
Stanisław Cader, Bogumił Dudek, Roman Fober, Tadeusz Gontarz, Witold Wiśniewski
7th session – Live line works on power units and installations – Seventeenth lecture Work protection problems
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 477
Identified and given are threat sources in live line works. Ascertained is that equally dangerous for occupational safety, apart from physical factors connected with an object and environment as well as organizational factors, are personal physical and psychical factors. Specified are technical, procedural and preservative risk reducing measures. Determined is influence of installation design features on possibility of executing LLW. Given are rules and methods of protection against electrocution and against electromagnetic field influence.
Adam Kupczyk, Izabela Wielewska
Present state and perspectives of transport biofuels consumption in Poland – against the background of the UE
Part III. Biofuels production development supporting instruments
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 485
Distinguished are the following groups of factors from among transport biofuels production supporting instruments: fiscal – taxational, contingents, direct support of producers and biofuels propagation. Described is a method of supporting biofuel sector in Poland. Given is the UE transport biofuels consumption index. The UE strategy of Feb. 8, 2006 concerning transport biofuels points out three aims to achieve: biofuels promotion, diminishing their production costs and increasing funds for the second generation biofuels research.
Marek Łukasz Michalski
Ways to utilize world reserves of geothermal energy
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 490
Prognostic reserves of geothermal energy accumulated inside our planet amount to about 600 000 EJ so they are 1400 times bigger than the global energy demand. With the aid of present technologies about 5000 EJ can be utilized what enables to exceed the primary energy world demand by ten times. Basic method of geothermal energy application is its direct utilization as the so called lower source for heat pumps and conversion of earth heat energy into electric energy. More than 60 countries utilize geothermal energy directly as heat energy and almost half of them produce also electric energy. According to prognoses, prices of heat energy and the electric one coming from geothermal sources will become lower in the perspective of the coming years to a level of 10-20 USD/MWh.
Contemporary high voltage techniques evolution
Energetyka 2007, nr 6/7, s. 501
Discussed are the main tendencies relating to - observed during the last quarter of a century– evolution of contemporary high voltage techniques applied in electrical power engineering. Considered are the following matters: conditions determining contemporary high voltage techniques, development tendencies of chosen high voltage insulating systems, technical progress signs in power lines as well as properties of contemporary high voltage test and measuring techniques.