Assessment possibilities of conditions of power system operation in the state of the threat
Discussed is an assessment possibility of actual power system operation conditions with the use of algorithms for calculations the loss gradient. The loss gradient coordinates carry information concerning the power sent to particular grid nodes. The curves of the power being transmitted in the grid have certain extreme values, resulted from the grid parameters, causing the stability loss when are exceeded. For the assessment of the power system operating conditions serve also phasor measurements. In the paper both approaches are compared.
POWER INDUSTRY ACADEMY
8th Session - Equipment for direct conversion of primary energy into electricity
One of the means rising the conversion efficiency of primary energy into electricity is the use of so called equipment for the direct conversion enabling shortening the power conversion chain. Galvanic and fuel cells, thermal-electric generators, photo-electric (solar) and thermal-emission cells and magneto-hydrodynamic (magneto-gas-dynamic) generators belong to these. For applications in objects of great scale, with regard to their technical parameters, the magneto-hydrodynamic generators fit only, however their are not competitive for traditional power stations; they are able to supplement power stations and to increase their efficiency only. Other converters, especially fuel and solar cells are recently the subject of interest of distributed generation.
POWER AND ECOLOGY
Bio-mass in Poland
Technical potential of the bio-mass for power purposes depends on accepted model of forest economy and agriculture model and rate of introduction of more and more productive plantations of plants for power purposes and competitiveness for accessible space for alternative ways of it use. In Polish conditions as a natural development direction of solid bio-fuel use will be the heat generation. In a long perspective there is foreseen to use solid bio-fuels in co-generation systems, generating together electricity and heat. Development of liquid bio-fuel sector will depend on accepted political and legislation solutions deliberated anew in Polish parliament now.
Utilization of transport bio-fuels in Poland at the background of EU Part I. Indices and barriers of transport bio-fuel utilization
One of considered possibilities and chances of solving the energy problem in the transport are transport bio-fuels of three generations. Poland is at the stage of increasing use the transport bio-fuels of first generation (bio-ethanol and bio-diesel) and organization of research and development works in the field of second and third generation. Except of three bio-fuel generations, the generations of other alternative fuels will be developed (forecast of renew) Works on the alternative fuels can result as a consequence in production of the fuel with the use of various methods, according to conception of sustainable development, fulfilling three conditions: economic substantiation, taking into account environmental aspects and social acceptance. The fuel, of great expectations now is the hydrogen, produced in clean technologies utilizing as fossil fuels, as agricultural row material or municipal/industrial wastes (bio-hydrogen) as well.
Effectiveness of conversion of solar radiation into electricity compared with effectiveness of the most modern coal fueled power station
The statement that the increase of emission of the carbon dioxide to the atmosphere limits the heat radiation from the Earth, causing as an effect an increase of the air temperature is a hypothesis yet. So, it can not be a solid base for the world power policy. Power stations in Europe fuelled with coal (as hard coal, as lignite as well) will be leading ones in the nearest decades. In this region coal fuelled power stations generate about 30 % of electric energy to day. The power security for all branches of economy can assure only all accessible fuels and various conversion technologies.