Polish Power Industry 2004. Energy Balance in 2003
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 201, 3 figs
It is undoubtedly better year then previous one for economic entities of the Polish power industry with regard to almost all indices arising from the energy balance. They are still differentiated as it concerns as a capital, as economic results as well and first of all they differ still from outer, foreign comparisons. These differences are the most important challenge for energy markets being opened.
Disastrous Failure in the North American Electric Power System in 2003. Reasons and Conclusions
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 203, 5 figs, 6 refs
US-Canada Power Outage Task Force has established a reason of the failure of so wide scope, particularly errors which were a cause of the outage cascade. On the base of these conclusions the NERC (North American Electric Reliability Council) has elaborated recommendations for the dispatcher and operational personnel. In the paper are given essential groups of problems which are subject of these recommendations, actions for repair of special errors, strategic initiatives and technical initiatives.
Designing and Operation of Main Steam Pipelines
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 206
In order to assure the security and the reliable operation of main steam pipelines they should be necessarily the subject of the continuous supervision. Within a scope of the supervision should be contained: creeping of the pipeline material and operation of the suspension system and displacements of the characteristic points. In the frame of this supervision the recording of measurements should be conducted in order to enable continuous analyses of the pipeline operation and particularly corrections of the suspension settings. Material creeping measurements of the high-temperature pipelines are an essential information enabling precise forecasting of their life time - admissible, real time of their reliable operation.
BIELA J., NOWICKI R.
Contemporary Methods of Service Assessment of Rotary Machine Technical Condition
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 211
Activity and development directions of a diagnostic group in a leading overhaul firm in Poland are presented. Kinds of chosen analyses enabling better inspection of machines being a subject of an overhaul or modernisation are illustrated with the aid of several differentiated examples. Recognition of eventual montage flaws in the case of rotary machines at the stage of their first start up after overhaul or modernisation and as consequence pertinent corrections will fructify in every case with extension of periods between the overhauls and moderating the fatigue processes of machine elements and systems connected with the machine, i.e. supporting structure, pipelines and other auxiliary machines.
DĄBROWSKA J., KAJURA A., KASZOWSKA B.
Possibilities of Energy Saving in Small and Medium Firms
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 217, 6 figs, 4 tabs
Results of works concerning problems of possibilities of energy and power factors savings in a firm are presented. Presented is also an example of the energy flow in the firm. Pointed out are potential advantages of saving actions, as well as positive and negative factors influencing the saving process. Presented are, with the aid of an example of lighting, possibilities of effective electricity consumption in the firm.
Optimisation Problem of Load Shedding in Electric Power Systems
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 224, 4 refs
Optimisation of steady states in a power system is called an economic load shedding. Solving of this problem consists in defining such state of the transmission grid that energy generation and transmission costs are the least, at given configuration and known loads in consumption nodes. In the paper the attention is paid to the economic active load shedding in an electric power system.
Influence of Inter-Phase Water - Metal Equilibrium on the State of the Protection Layer in Water-Wall Tubes
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 229
(Bulletin of the Pro Novum p. 1), 6 figs, 4 refs
Protecting properties of the oxide layer on the inner surface of the evaporator depend on dynamic equilibrium between this layer and water. This dynamic equilibrium depends on physical and chemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic processes occurring in the water layer near the wall. Perturbations of the equilibrium speed-up corrosion processes occurring on the inner surfaces of the evaporator pipes. Rapid changes of thermal, chemical and hydraulic conditions of the boiler operation cause perturbation in the equilibrium.
Is a Chance in Poland for the Use of the Bio-Mass in Power Boilers of Great Output?
Energetyka 2004, No. 4, p. 235, figs 2, tab. 5, 5 refs
Co-combustion of the bio-mass with the essential fuel in the coal-dust boilers is a troublesome problem and up to date practically not used in Poland The troubles arise from necessity of achieving an uniform bio-mass and it accurate grinding and drying with regard to short time of it stay in the combustion zone in the coal-dust boiler. An interesting solution of the problem of too short time of the stay in the combustion zone is proposed by the Energowir company technology of "the low-temperature vortex". This technology in a simple way extends the time of the particle stay in the zone of high temperatures and is used in 28 coal-dust boilers in Poland.