World energy outlook up to 2035
The International Energy Agency, a specialized agency of the OECD, in its recently published 2011 World Energy Outlook forecasts the growth in almost all sectors of the global power market in the next 25 years. However there are worrying signals for nuclear and renewables industries. IEA report presents valuable data for professionals dealing with development planning and operational activities in the power sector.
Keywords: energy sector, forecasts, horizon 2035
Marek MOKWIŃSKI, Jerzy PRYWER
Harnessing of the sewage kinetic energy in a bulk outlet channel of the group waste-water treatment plant in Łódź for the purpose of electric energy generation by the use of vertical-shaft transverse type turbine
The flowing stream of a liquid carries potential energy worth of utilization for the state’s economy. Hydraulic power of the water stream is dissipated in the entire stream cross-section. It depends on the average stream speed, the density of the liquid and the stream cross-section. A constructor of turbines utilizing kinetic energy of flowing water is facing a challenge resulting from technical limitations in the form of variable depth and width of the stream and its low flow rate - usually between 0.5 to 2 m/s. The simplest example is a power plant using kinetic energy of a passing waste stream, placed at an open sewage channel of rectangular cross-section. Presented is the application analysis, for the purpose of electric power generation, of the vertical-shaft water turbine working at the rectangular cross-section bulk outlet channel of the group waste-water treatment plant in Łódź. A model of such turbine was previously tested experimentally in a wind tunnel by Jerzy Prywer and Stanisław Kuczewski.
Keywords: kinetic energy, transverse turbine, small water-power plants, hydro-plants, sewages, sewage treatment plant, rectangular cross-section open channel, water-power engineering, hydro-electric set
Distributed electric energy sources with special regard to the renewable ones
Discussed are cost and technical and economic characteristics of the existing distributed electric energy sources.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, distributed power generation, technical and economic characteristics
The law forgot the biomass combustion products!
Discussed is the course of debate and conclusions are given concerning various aspects of utilizing the biomass combustion by-products. Analyzed are methods of adapting storage sites for biomass combustion by-products collection. Given are examples of the lack of legal solutions concerning biomass combustion wastes.
Keywords: biomass combustion, combustion by-products, wastes utilization
Andrzej BŁASZCZYK, Adam PAPIERSKI
Modernization process of the plunger pump
Presented are damages to parts of a plunger pump dispensing water at a temperature of 104°C. Discussed are also the probable causes of failure and methods to repair the pump. Modernization of the plunger pump consisted in selecting new materials for reconstructed pump parts which were damaged while the failure occurred. Selection of new materials required to carry out strength computations for new parts. Materials for these new elements were selected on the basis of metallographic studies of materials of which the damaged pump parts had been made.
Keywords: plunger pump, pump modernization, metallographic studies
Modelling of stress distribution in diagnostic system of pipelines working in creeping conditions
Diagnostics of main steam pipelines is not only testing. The primary aim of testing is the assessment of a real technical condition of the object and determination of its further safe operation. Steam pipeline failures resulting in unsealing can be very dangerous for servicing personnel but for sure they are oppresive for the maintenance staff. That is why the diagnostics and technical assessment of pipelines working in creeping conditions must be carried on according to an orderly system in which the type and scope of testing is a logical consequence of the carried out analysis. Given are examples taken from research practice confirming reliability of three-dimensional pipeline modelling as the tool for critical areas location and as the element supporting the orderly system of steam pipelines diagnosing.
Keywords: diagnostics of steam pipelines, modelling of stress distribution
Damages of boiling tubes as a result of hydrogen activity
Hydrogen corrosion of boiling tubes in power boilers as the mechanism of damaging is a very dangerous type of corrosion. Hydrogen damaging can be the cause of many pipe failures occurring relatively frequently which generates the necessity of replacing the big part of waterwalls. This of course means considerable financial outlays. On the basis of research practice described is the negative activity of hydrogen on the boiling pipes material and explained are the documented damage mechanisms of power boiler waterwall pipes.
Keywords: boiling tubes of a power boiler, hydrogen corrosion of boiling tubes
Electrochemical methods of water conditioning. Application of coagulant electrolytic dosing in water conditioning
Meeting the trends dominating in the world’s environmental engineering, „Energopomiar” has taken up a research on the prototype of a device for electrolytic dosing of coagulant. Presented are advantages of the proposed technology and described is the construction of the prototype. After initial laboratory tests aiming at optimization of the device’s work parameters, large scale research will be carried out on real feeding sources of a water conditioning plant.
Keywords: electrochemical methods of water conditioning, electrolytic dosing of coagulant
Henryk KARCZ, Andrzej KOZAKIEWICZ, Marcin KANTOREK, Piotr DZIUGAN, Krzysztof WIERZBICKI
Can municipal wastes be effectively utilized in stoker-fired boilers?
Technical and technological analyses of potential energy fuels produced from municipal wastes show that the most economic and ecological method of wastes energy recycling is production of pre-formed alternative energy fuels in the form of briquettes or pellets which are used to fuel power boilers working in a cogeneration system consisting of steam and ORC turbogenerators. Wastes energy recycling in cogeneration system enables the simultaneous production of electric and heat energy and considerably reduces CO2 emission to the atmosphere as the wastes, in at least 40%, can be included among renewable energy sources. The amount of CO2 released to atmosphere during the process of production of one electric energy unit is an extremely important economic parameter.
Keywords: energy fuels, municipal wastes, wastes energy recycling in cogeneration system, stoker-fired boilers