Herbert Leopold GABRYŚ
Polish power industry 2009 – timely questions
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 221
The end of the year 2008 and the first months of 2009 brought challenges of the unheard-of scale to the Polish power industry economic subjects. These were, amongst the others, the essential changes in prices and accessibility to power coal, the UE Climate-Energy Packet with its many records to be yet fully explained, and threats resulting from the world's financial crisis for the Polish economy. If we add to these problems the ongoing works on more accurate defining of statements comprised in governmental document „Polish Power Policy until the year 2030", it becomes quite clear that not only correction of plans of the Polish power industry economic subjects for the year 2009 is needed but also a substantial verification of their strategy.
Keywords: Polish power industry 2009, Polish electric energy market, electric energy consumption
Wind energy conquests Europe – new industrial cluster originates in northern Germany
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 226
While the world's economy, as a result of financial crisis, is forced to once again define itself and estimate its strength, the renewable energy industry is still developing, and especially this branch of it which is responsible for the design and production of wind energy installations. Numerous investigations and continuous search of new technical solutions show that a big potential is still hidden in this industrial sector.
Keywords: wind power industry, offshore type wind farms, industrial cluster
Henryka JORMAKKA, Pekka KOPONEN, Heimo PENTIKAINEN,
Control systems of critical infrastructures, security analysis
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 229
The goal of the paper is to discuss vulnerabilities of IT systems used for control purposes in energy transmission or distribution systems, consequences of possible attacks caused by the vulnerabilities and methods that can be used to mitigate the results of the attacks. Cyber attacks are not the only type of external malicious attacks. The paper presents also information about physical attacks on critical infrastructure systems.
Keywords: control systems, security
Role of a power system protection and control systems during power systems' synchronization process
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 237
Mentioned are some problems concerning various functions of a power system protection and control systems during the process of power systems' synchronization. Presented are selected technical solutions of control and measurement systems with special attention paid to selection of working modes and systems' cooperation rules. Shown are results of many years' work as well as records obtained during the course of interconnection operation processes in substations and electric power plants belonging to the UCTE system. Discussed are requirements which must be met by WAMS systems to aid interconnection operation processes in power systems.
Keywords: power system protection, automatic interconnection equipment, WAMS systems, automatic control
Power loss reduction in cable lines
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 244
Discussed are selected methods to reduce losses in a return cable conductor which in turn allow to increase its load capacity. One of the recommended methods is to ground one end of the return conductor and connect a surge arrester to the other. Given is mathematical dependence to calculate the value of the electromotive force induced in a return conductor as a result of short-circuit current flow in a phase conductor.
Keywords: return cable conductor, surge arresters, induced electromotive force (EMF)
Monitoring of hard coal stock in electric power plants and CHPs – coal quantity survey in storage yards
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 246
Presented is the actual methodology – elaborated and used by Energopomiar - to determine actual quantity of hard coal in storage yards. Described are conditions and measurements and computational procedures concerning quantity survey of hard coal dumps including determination of measuring accuracy. Discussed are exemplary results of such measurements and calculations for a selected object.
Keywords: stock-taking measurement procedures, hard coal stock measurements
Wiesław CIECHANOWICZ, Stefan SZCZUKOWSKI
Transforming Europe from Era of Fire into Hydrogen Economy. Future of methanol fuel cells. Will Poland take an advantage of it?
Energetyka 2009, nr 4, p. 253
Immediate source of energy for successive civilizations was fire. It was only the fire that generated energy in the form of heat. But the aim of the sustainable future civilization is to make the world's economy grow with the use of energy generators in the form of fuel cells. They „draw out" electrons directly from atoms of hydrogen, producing electric current in this way – hence the term Hydrogen Economy. The main precursor of transformation into Hydrogen Economy are the USA. A question arises, to what degree Europe and some selected countries being its members take part in this transformation.
Keywords: biomethanol, fuel cells, hydrogen economy