Herbert Leopold Gabryś
Power industry in Poland in 2021– from results and challenges
Given is the energy balance for the year 2020 in comparisons with the pre-COVID year 2018, then with the year 2019, and also in many cases with the year 2010. Concluded is – among the others – that we will be condemned to coal-based power generation for years to come. It will neither be quickly replaced with nuclear energy nor, on an appropriate scale, with the increase of new gas capacities. We are not in the possession of efficient RES energy storage technologies. Our coal generation cannot be totally replaced with import. The energy we generate is too expensive to be competitive on open energy markets and the main reason is the carbon tax. Energy industry financial results are variable and unpredictable. Generation of energy based on solid fuels is systematically eliminated from the market. In comparisons concerning domestic electric energy production and its consumption by final customers in the years 2018 and 2020 – despite imbalances caused by pandemia – there is clearly seen a tendency to bigger dynamics of electric energy consumption than its production. Additionally, economy is having a significant impact on the situation in the energy industry and mainly on changes in the electric energy consumption.
Keywords: energy inustry in Poland, energy balance for the years 2018-2020, financial results of the energy industry
Electricity Act – map of development works and proposed structure (chapters) of the act
Electricity Act is becoming – in the middle of 2021 – an issue of a crucial importance both theoretical and practical. In a theoretical approach this is so because it needs a legal doctrine tailor-made for changes that have not yet been experienced by the world and for the target that have still not had to be realized. But in a multi-faceted practical approach the importance of Electricity Act reveals itself in three dimensions. First, it possesses a great power to unify the discussion concerning energy transition. Discussion, the character of which has changed during the last few years in a breakthrough mode – from an extremely impenetrable one to the one which is extremely democratised. Discussion, which in a destructive mode (alas!) encompasses the whole public (political and social) sphere. Second, Electricity Act comprises the potential to reconstruct values (social belief that they can be reconstructed) going far beyond the subject of the traditionally understood energy industry – though from natural causes it is (this potential) so far not yet visible for the greater part of the population. It so happens because the new values do not fit easily into the current dichotomous system: Enlightenment values (liberalism) vs conservatism (nationalist).These new values will take form shaped by the young digital generation. One cannot live in a dehumanized digital society, but digitisation enabling transition of the corporate energy industry into electroprosumerism in a local space of the social capital is a desired solution as it leads to civil society different from the corporate one. Different, because of the higher level of responsibility for democracy and environment, including the climate. And different because of the lower level of consumerism (higher level of self-limitation). Such society must in Poland urgently counterbalance (at least counterbalance) the corporate society. The third practical dimension is the legislative practice. Undertaking of the works on the Act provisions by legislators having not a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of the breakthrough mode energy transition (i.e. following the – alas! – existing practice) would become one more catastrophe instead of the solution. This article contains the outlined in the summary problem which is characteristic for development studies and comes out towards the structure of the Electricity Act provisions. This structure is regarded as the basis enabling the beginning of the works by legislator teams (may as well be competitive – competition in this case would be, as in the whole TETIP transition, highly welcome).
Keywords: energy industry, transition, electroprosumerism, Electricity Act
Functionalities of the system(WSE) technical market enabling an electroprosumeric access to a MV/LV network of a DSO operator
The share of converters in the National Power System is steadily increasing though they are perceived by the present power industry only through the prism of meeting technical conditions and reduction of their impact on the network. The exponential development of converters themselves, methods of their control and communication systems significantly extended the use that can be made of them. Described are here functionalities that can be offered by converters in integrated structures of access terminals enabling electroprosumeric admittance to MV/LV networks. Provideable services are all the bigger and more effective when terminals cooperate with hybrid AC/DC networks and a power electronic transformer.
Keywords: converters, power electronic transformer, network access terminal
Michał Sadowski, Anna Suchecka
Technical aspects of the system(WSE) management dedicated for energy cooperatives
Described is the besmart.energy system – i.e. AI and Big Data tools for the modern energy industry. The system supports four main functions indispensable from the system(WSE) management point of view, namely collecting data, creation of predictions, balancing and clearance of accounts. Carrying out of transition in the direction of distributed generation will not be able without digitalisation. Technology and an innovative attitude are vital elements of systems(WSE) manageability. Except digitalisation, an essential thing is an intelligent infrastructure i.e. a network of meters that can be contacted in a real time. A substantial part of the application is also the author's module allowing an access to a precise weather forecast. This application enables generation of weather data for every point in the country. Except data of a strict energy character the system covers also the typical cost issues. For predictions, the AI algorithms are used, which on the basis of historical courses' features generate the expected prices of energy. It was also decided – within the frames of the besmart.energy project – to develop an intelligent energy meter of new generation. The described solution because of its scalability, elasticity and costs is particularly interesting for citizens energy and energy communities and in large part it can serve the better local balancing of energy.
Keywords: energy cooperatives, local energy balancing, system(WSE) management, besmart.energy system