Offshore wind farms – technology solutions
The article discusses issues related to the current and future development of offshore wind farms in the context of the technical solutions: wind turbines and their rotors, generators, power evacuation systems (conversion and transformation), solutions for the foundation of offshore wind turbines, offshore collector stations, assembly and integration of offshore wind farms and their environmental aspects.
Keywords: offshore wind farms, offshore wind turbines, offshore collector stations
Paddy-straw co-firing as a way of partial elimination
of smog problem of New Delhi and NCR region?
The paper discusses the problem of fine dust emissions (PM2.5 and PM10) from the burning of paddy straw residues in the fields of selected Indian provinces of the Delhi region and NCR. It was considered to direct the use the part of the residue paddy straw for co-combustion with hard coal in the existing coal-fired units of the Haryjana province. The proposed technology has already been verified in industrial scale. Step-wise logistics model was proposed to be implemented at the first stage of paddy straw co-firing implementation. The analysis of the emission effects of the proposed approach showed that it is possible to significantly reduce the emission of airborne harmful substances, including the complete elimination of fine dust emissions from the Haryjana state in the reference variant (stubble burning).
Keywords: biomass, co-firing, paddy straw, smog, emission of PM2.5 and PM10
Mateusz Szul, Tomasz Iluk, Krzysztof Supernok, Karina Ignasiak
Preparation of low-quality coal fractions for their energetic use
The article presents methods of preparing low-quality coals for use in industrial and professional power plants. The main problem in the management of waste coal fractions is instability of their physicochemical parameters, significant amount of impurities and ballast (ash, moisture) and heterogeneous grain size distribution. Low quality of fuels may contribute to disturbances in thermal processes in various types of combustion boilers or gasification reactors. To prevent this, it is necessary to valorise low-quality carbon feedstocks into fuels of a stable, homogeneous form that guarantees repeatability of their quality. Methods of preparing solid fuels, such as granulation, briquetting or preparation of coal suspension (slurry) fuels, improve their performance parameters and stability, which positively affect the efficiency of combustion and reduces emissions to the environment. In addition, the technologies for the preparation of low-quality coals allow to increase the energy density of the produced fuel, reducing transport costs and facilitating its storage. Appropriate preparation of low-quality carbon fractions along with the selection of necessary sorbents and fillers is important, among others, from the point of view of maximizing the use of carbon deposits and revalorization of post-mining areas.
Keywords: coal preparation, low quality coals, power generation, combustion, gasification, briquetting, granulation, coal slurry
Hydrogen and ammonia as the means to achieve climate neutrality
Recently, the use of hydrogen is one of the frequently discussed issues of the global energy sector. It is expected that hydrogen will replace fuels based on hydrocarbons and will be the main fuel for land and sea long distance means of transport. It will help to solve problems concerning decarbonization of the high-temperature heat produced by industrial and residential heating currently obtained from natural gas and coal. Described are initiatives aimed at supporting research and development of hydrogen energy in the EU states and some other countries in the world. Subsequent part of the article is devoted to ammonia, inorganic chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen which is an ideal carrier of energy transferred across long distances. Moreover, it enables decarbonization of agricultural fertilizer production and is suitable for vessel propulsion. Ammonia-based fuel cells do not require much room and they can be deployed in modules saving space on ships. Listed are also the countries where "green ammonia" production technologies are used.
Keywords: climate neutrality, green hydrogen, green ammonia