Gerhard BARTODZIEJ, Wojciech RADZIEWICZ Tools to identify the location of a wind power plant
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 651
Defined are criteria satisfying of which is necessary for proper localization of
a wind power plant. They are prognoses of: wind speed changes, capital costs during realization of investment and running processes, running costs with special regard to failures and the ones concerning electric energy purchase price.
Keywords: wind power plants, localization, costs, wind speed changes
Petr BILÍK, Ludvík KOVAL, Jiří HULA
Application of modular system „embedded cRIO" for elastic universal measuring devices
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 653
Presented is a new equipment set making use of the universal electric energy quality analyser. Described are SW means applied for remote data transmission from this analyser and for analysis of measuring data.
Keywords: analyser of energy quality, modular system, virtual devices for voltage deviation measuring
Zbigniew BORKOWICZ, Maciej CADER
Robotized system for power boiler wear testing
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 657
Discussed is application of a robotized system for diagnostic testing of big
power boilers. It consists of three elements: a mobile robot, computerized
operator stand and an expert stand which are connected by means of wireless digital network. Presented are results obtained in Opole and Siersza power plants.
Keywords: power boiler overhaul, diagnostics, industrial robots, robotized diagnostic system
Experience gained during cooperation between Consortium of Polish Universities and EDF Group Polska in the field of new technologies in power industry
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 659
Discussed is experience gained during cooperation of Consortium of Polish Universities with EDF Group Polska in the field of new technologies in power industry. Presented cooperation model of a big company with a group of universities enables avoiding research repeating and result duplicating.
Keywords: EDF, new power industry technologies, Polish-French cooperation
Ałła DENYSOWA, Volodymyr TATARCHUK
Combined energy-saving and electron-ionic flue gas treatment technologies
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 662
Analysis of theoretical and experimental results of gas and dust medium
velocity spectrum examination in electrofilters working on the basis of KEJT technology in conditions of optimum flue gas distribution enables optimum
localization of aerodynamic partition walls as well as uniform gas flow distribution to electrofilter section. Making use of KEJT energy-saving electrofilters instead of the large-size ones realizing the increase of efficiency through enlargement of filter size and elongating the time of flue gas stay in them, enables to solve problems connected with effective fly ash trapping in a power plant.
Keywords: flue gas treatment, electrofilters
Zbigniew GNUTEK, Michał POMORSKI
Advantages and hazards resulting from transporting natural gas in liquified form
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 664
Presented are advantages of natural gas transport in liquified form resulting
from its physical properties. Described is the method of delivering liquified natural gas through pipelines on long distance. Shawn is an algorithm of
calculations concerning changes of thermodynamic parameters along the pipeline. Compared is energy consumption needed for natural gas transport through pipelines in liquid and gas forms.
Keywords: liquified natural gas (LNG), transport, pipelines, cisterns, methane carriers
Henryk MAJCHRZAK, Wiktor KRAWCZYK
Influence of CO2 emission authorization price on the price of electric energy
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 667
As a result of the cultivated in the UE climate changes limitation policy it was decided to implement the EU Emission Trading Scheme (UE ETS). Its main function i.e. authorization for the emission of CO2 for individual countries, sectors and plants brings definite economic consequences. In power industry such authorization should be preceded by an analysis of social effects – the increase of electric energy and heat prices. There is made an attempt to analyse these effects in a simple form with reference to electric energy prices.
Keywords: climate changes, CO2 emission, emission authorization, energy prices
Waldemar MUSKAŁA, Jarosław KRZYWAŃSKI, Tomasz CZAKIERT,
Robert SEKRET, Wojciech NOWAK
Combustion in O2 and CO2 modified atmospheres
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 669
Discussed is the course of combustion processes in the atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Ascertained is that as a result many advantages
are achieved arising from modification of combustion process itself as well as from lower emission of harmful substances produced during the course
of this process. Indicated is that the main obstacle in widespreading of oxygen combustion technology are high costs of pure oxygen obtaining. There are many methods of separating oxygen from the air like criogenic, absorption, adsorption (TSA, PSA, TPSA, VSA) and OTM (Oxygen Transport Membrane) methods but all these processes are not efficient enough so the unit cost of pure oxygen is still very high.
Keywords: combustion in oxygen enriched atmosphere, combustion modification, ecological and economic advantages
Application of selected hazard identification methods in analysis of technical risk in power installations
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 672
Discussed are various selected hazard identification methods in analysis of technical risk in power blocks' elements. Assessment of a risk in such complex systems like power blocks requires identification of all possibilitites leading to a damage of a system. For the needs of such an identification many methods were developed, like FMEA – Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, FMECA – Failure Mode and Criticality Analysis, ET – Cause and Effect Tree or FT – Fault Tree Analysis. Given are examples of some risk analysis methods application in selected power blocks' systems.
Keywords: risk analysis, hazard identification, risk assessment, methods of analysis
Jan TALER, Marcin TROJAN
Computer system for on-line assessment of a coal fired boiler heating surfaces' fouling level
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 675
Presented is a computer based boiler performance monitoring system
providing on-line assessment of combustion chamber walls and convective surfaces fouling. Temperature, pressure and flow measurements results as
well as flue gas analysis data are used to analyse the heat transfer in boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated by means of an indirect method. The on-line calculation of a combustion chamber allows for determination of heat flow rate between a boiler furnace and evaporator. Comparing the calculated and measured flow rate of superheated steam mass one can obtain the coefficient of combustion chamber waterwalls thermal efficiency. Calculated are also non-dimensional factors characterizing heat flows taken up by evaporator and boiler superheater. Instead of actuating slag-and-ash blowers in fixed time cycles, the frequency of their switching-on can be optimized by the on-line evaluated real boiler heating surfaces' fouling level, greatly contributing to reduction of water and steam consumption by slag-and-ash blowers and increasing of superheater and waterwalls' boiler pipes lifetime.
Keywords: boilers, heating surfaces' fouling monitoring, slag-and-ash blowers
Hybrid system of space local positioning
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 679
Presented is a system enabling determination of an object coordinates in
a three-dimensional space, dedicated for objects of a big cubic content eg. the inside of a power boiler. For industrial purposes the most useful are ultrasonic systems but one of their faults is a short range of operation. Described is
a hybrid solution consisting of two systems – ultrasonic and optical, where the measured space has a separate zone and its location is determined by an optical positioning system. Inside the zone, localization is based on an ultrasonic system. Uncertainties in coordinates measuring are on the level of approx.
2-4 cm and this value is quite enough to unmistakably identify every individual pipe in a boiler waterwall.
Keywords: coordinates in a three-dimensional space, power boiler, hybrid localization, positioning
Gerhard BARTODZIEJ, Michał TOMASZEWSKI
Blackout in Szczecin area
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 682
Increasing of power transmission lines resistance to extreme events can be
obtained during the process of new lines designing and also by adapting some
of the already existing lines to increased requirements. The range of possible
modifications must be based on individual technical and economic analyses prepared for particularly imperilled regions. Cost of preventive activities – on country and region levels – must be lower than costs of probable failures, where calculations must not only be based on data concerning the lifetime of electric lines and other network installations but also taking into account free market rules.
Keywords: power transmission lines resistance, extreme events, preventive activities
Graduates of the post-diploma studies „Technology of power units overhaul"
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 685
Published are names of graduates and lecturers of the first in Poland post-diploma studies „Technology of power units overhaul". Given is the list of problems the students deal with. In the 1984/85 academic year the first 20 engineers raised their qualifications in the field of power industry overhaul management. During next few years more than 70 persons were graduated. New specialists in integrated overhaul management greatly contributed to implementation of rationally justified power engineering revitalization. It is also the main theme of the Power Engineers' Forum international scientific conference held every second year under the motto „We rationally administer the energy".
Keywords: post-diploma studies, Technical University of Opole, power units overhaul
World Energy Council about nucelar power engineering
Purposefulness and necessity of building nuclear power sector in Poland
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 688
Keywords: nuclear power engineering in Poland, the World Energy Council
Inevitability of building new nuclear power plants
(Translation of Mr Gerald Doucet's, Secretary General World Energy Council, opinion)
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 689
Keywords: nuclear power engineering in the world, the World Energy Council
Ryszard BARTNIK, Zbigniew BURYN
Thermodynamic analysis of running 380 MW power block adapted to cogeneration work
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 695
Presented are selected results of thermodynamic calculations of a 380 MW
power block adapted to cogeneration work. As the calculations show,
additional taking out of considerable steam amount to heat exchangers has an influence on pressure reduction in bleeders. It is not unlikely that together with reduction of a block load, the pressure in bleeders will be reduced, too. Reduction of pressure values and, what is very essential, the corresponding saturation temperatures makes it necessary to search the optimum structure of heat exchangers among the ones fed with steam from A2, A3 bleeders and the crossover between SP and NP turbine stages and not from bleeders A1, A2 and A3.
Keywords: power block operation analysis, cogeneration work
Anna NITARSKA, Marek MARCISZ
Multivariate analysis of possibility and purposefulness of sewage sludge co-combustion in pulverized coal-fired boilers
(I) Conditions of co-combustion in the light of legal regulations
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 701
Part (I) is a substantive preface to presentation of the title analysis – one of Energopomiar expert practice cases. Characterized are resources and pro-
perties of municipal sewage sludge in our country. Presented are basic
conditions and requirements concerning thermal processes of sewage sludge conversion and energy production as well as the quality of afterprocess furnace wastes.
Keywords: sewage sludge co-combustion, pulverized coal-fired boilers, legal regulations
Multivariate analysis of possibility and purposefulness of sewage sludge co-combustion in pulverized coal-fired boilers
(II) Choice of co-combustion method in power boilers
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 702
Described are essential difficulties and activities enabling co-combustion of sewage sludge in power boilers. Considered are legal aspects as well as
technical, technological, ecological, economic and financial conditions. Recapitulated are results of analysis carried out during the stage of the prepared investment conceptional elaboration.
Keywords: sewage sludge co-combustion, power boilers
Application of infrared spectrophotometry to determine amine oxidation inhibitor in enriched turbine oils
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 708
Discussed is the process of oil oxidation as well as the functioning mechanism of alkylated diaryloamins as an inhibitor. Presented are results of selected laboratory tests concerning methods of determination the inhibitor of that type with the use of FTIR-JASCO spectrophotometer. The research enabled to elaborate a method to determine the percentage content of additives in
a packet on the basis of amine present in such a packet.
Keywords: turbine oils, spectrophotometry
Tomasz CZAKIERT, Wojciech NOWAK, Zbigniew BIS
Combustion in oxygen modified atmospheres – direction of CFB boilers development
Energetyka 2008, nr 10, s. 713
Presented is technology of combustion in oxygen enriched atmospheres (OEA) as well as possibilities of its adaptation in conditions of circulating fluidized bed. Discussed are processes accompanying the OEA technology. Proposed are two ideas concerning organisation of the process including description of advantages and potential problems.
Keywords: CFB boilers, combustion technology