Irreversible influence of particular parts of the thermal process on
the emission of CO2
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 785
Every thermal process fed with hydrocarbon fuel or with an energy carrier produced from that fuel, generates CO2 emission in energy system. That emission, per unit of the useful product, increases with the growth of irreversibility of the process links. Exergy analysis enables to determine the CO2 emission caused by particular links of the process. Included are examples of calculations.
Adrian halinka, Michał SZewczyk
Transmission media in power automatics
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 788
Presented are chosen methods of information exchange applicable in power industry infrastucture as well as basic properties of transmission media. Described are various structures of data transmission systems and the most frequently used telecommunication links.
Jerzy TOMECZEK, Jan GÓRAL, Józef OCHMAN, Stanisław RYRKO
Adaptation of stoker-fired boiler to be fired with gas coming from the mine demethanization process
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 796
Presented is method to adapt WR10 water stoker-fired boiler to be fired with gas coming from the mine demethanization process. Operating tests showed that after changing from coal to methane gas and with no boiler construction alterations, about 15% increase of efficiency was obtained what results in calculable economic and ecological effects.
Future of stoker-fired boilers in the UE (debate article)
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 801
A question about the future of stoker fired boilers in the UE is asked. This future depends on fulfillment of requirements of EC Directives and related domestic legal regulations. It was stated that stoker fired boilers can meet the BAT requirements and have some positive features, what causes their future not endangered. One can even expect a rising interest with these boilers among domestic and foreign boiler users. Attention is paid to spreader stoker fired boilers which give the opportunity to increase boiler's maximum rating and co-firing of biomass. Therefore the domestic stoker manufacturers should be interested in their development, perhaps in cooperation with leading world manufacturers in this field.
Testing of residual current frequency influence on the work of residual current devices (RCDs)
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 805
Described is the application of RCDs in circuits where residual current frequency can be different from 50 Hz. Presented are testing results of widely applied RCDs within frequency range 1÷1000 Hz. These results indicate that sensitivity of residual current devices can vary significantly with frequency but it does not always mean that protection against electric shock is not effective.
Monika Kącik, Henryk GAJ
European standard to keep track of electric energy production attributes – E-TRACK project
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 812
Electric energy sources exposing system is characterized by complex interdependence of market participants' many policies and interests. Project E-TRACK provided us with knowledge and standards for practical implementation of the system and showed new possibilities and advantages that the electric energy sources exposing policy can bring to end-users and energy suppliers. Ecofys Polska is the Polish partner of this project.
Stanisław cader, Bogumił dudek, Roman fober, Tadeusz gontarz, Witold wiśniewski
7th session – Live line works on power units and installations
– Nineteenth lecture – Safe distances during live line works
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 815
In the opinion of Polish specialists working for power companies both the transmission providers and distributors, losses overrating is too often applied, bringing companies and their clients the danger of economic ineffectiveness. Given is the method to calculate electric distances Dv as well as the estimation of real hazards and risks. Given is, after CENELEC experts, a uniform scheme to define losses and distances during live line works. Establishing of the PN-EN 61472 standard makes it clear that live line works technological preparation needs fulfilling many criteria – one of them is calculating safe distances.
Henryk Karcz, Andrzej Kozakiewicz
Thermal utilization method of animal wastes
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 823
Animal wastes thermal utilization method can bring big economic effects resulting from cutting down utilization fees paid to outside economic units and from saving of conventional fuel used to produce specified amount of technological heat for a plant. Installation of gasodynamic burner ensures ignition and combustion of meat-and-bone flour.
Eugeniusz ORSZULIK, Dorota LENKIEWICZ
Co-combustion of hard coal and meat-and-bone flour in stoker-fired boilers
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 831
Meat and meat-and-bone flours are produced during the processing of animal waste tissue exposed to high temperature. They were used for production of fodders and fodder components for animal feeding. The Minister of Agriculture and Village Development in his decree of 1st November 2003 prohibited usage of meat and meat-and-bone flours as animal fodder. As a result of this ban a method of thermal utilization of meat and meat-and-bone flours in heating boilers was tested. Meat and meat-and-bone flours are one of calorific products liable to combustion or co-combustion with hard coal in stoker-fired boilers.
Accomplishment and conditions of executing Polish energy policy strategic aim and the indicative one resulting from 2001/77/WE Directive
Energetyka 2007, nr 11, s. 837
Energy Law Act enables a licenced producer to sell all energy coming from Renewed Energy Sources to the distributor's network he is connected to. Legal solutions should help to separate investment costs from the ones born by an operator. Important mechanism in supporting production of electric energy from RES is the system of C/Os issuing and remitting.