Polish Power Industry. First Half of the 2004 Year - Results, Comparisons
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 563, 4 figs
For Polish power entities first half of the present year was better than in the case of the previous year. Maintained is a tendency of electricity sale increase and more favourable financial results. However, we have not worked out any effective marketing strategy able to stimulate the energy market; we gain effects resulting from economic changes only. Electric energy, though many advantages, is not the most attractive energy carrier yet.
SKOMUDEK W., SZEWCZUK-STĘPIEŃ M.
Optimisation of the Decision Model for the Investment Process in the Power Industry with Use of Artificial Intelligence Elements
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 565, 1 fig., 2 tabs, 10 refs
Worked out optimisation method integrates a many-aspect look on the field of investment management. This method was implemented in the hybrid system. Results of total hybrid assessment compared with results of assessment according to defined criteria and expert assessment prove that proposed hybrid method can be used as alternative tool in investment decision making process.
Standardisation in the Electrical Engineering
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 570
Standardisation is a wide activity in the world-wide scale. It is a condition of the economic development and it is closely tied with technical progress and its dissemination. So, it is absolutely necessary to include Polish standardisation into European standardisation system. An effort connected with that inclusion and in order to organise permanent betterment of Polish standardisation will cause proper development of the country. In the paper are discussed international, European and national activities in the field of standardisation, mainly regarding the electrical engineering.
Are Included in the Tariffs Authorised by the URE (Regulatory Office for the Power Industry) Means Enabling To Solve Problems of Increasing the Operational Safety of the National Electric Power System?
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 574
Polish Power Unit Transformers for the 200 MW Power Units (Reasons of Not Decreased Their Failure Frequency Despite of Modernisation)
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 576
Essential Operation and Modernisation Problems of Power Unit Transformers (Seen from the User Side)
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 579
KOCHEL Z., LENARTOWICZ W., PROCHOWNIK P.
Effective Ways of Accomplishing Investments in Power Industry
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 585 (ZPBE Energopomiar Bulletin p. 61)
There is presented - at the background of the model functioning above 50 years - a new model of accomplishing investments in the national power industry, its advantages and drawbacks. In some measure at the margin, rich achievements acquired by the Energopomiar in rendering investment consulting services is shown.
Updating of Algorithms for Calculation of Flue Gas Unit Mass Needed for Defining Leakage of Rotary Air Heaters in Power Boilers
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 589
(ZPBE Energopomiar Bulletin p. 65), 3 tabs, 4 refs
There are proposed calculation algorithms for the flue gas unit mass in the condition not foreseen in existing American and German guidelines. Using as a base of calculations procedures in ASME guidelines, presented are dependencies for the measurement of CO2 or O2 content in the dry flue gas instead of measurement of CO2, O2 and CO with the aid of the Orsat apparatus. Formulae are given for the case of burning any gas, simultaneous burning various fuels, as well as dosing the lime stone into the furnace.
GRZEGORZYCA G., GUZY T., WYPYCH T.
Competencies of an Accredited Laboratory and Calibration Problems of Dispersed Measurement Systems
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 595
(ZPBE Energopomiar Bulletin p. 71), 1 figs, 7 refs
Chosen problems concerning an accredited laboratory with regard to calibration of dispersed measuring systems are presented. Underlined is a necessity of confirming declared metrological parameters and measurement equipment of the dispersed measurement systems. The need of shaping the technical consciousness and responsibility of manufacturers and customers according to requirements of standards accepted in EU is also pointed out.
Automatic Reserve Switching-on System for MV Substation Without Voltage Transformers
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 595
(ZPBE Energopomiar Bulletin p. 76), 3 figs, 6 refs
In the paper is presented a dispersed automatic reserve switching-on system for a MV substation, requiring to use no voltage transformers, based on specially designed APZmini automaton worked out in and proposed by the Energotest-Energopomiar. Its technical solution, functions and application features predestining it for use in simple MV switching stations is discussed.
OPALA K., JUREK R.
An Analysis of Possibility of Co-ordinated Voltage and Reactive Power Control in the Plewiska, Poznań Południe and Czerwonak 400, 220 and 110 kV Substations
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 605
(Bulletin of the Instytut Energetyki p. 30), 11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 ref.
A co-ordinated control should be treated as an ovule of regional control which differentiated algorithm is arisen from grid connections at given area. Implementation of the co-ordinated control system for the Plewiska, Czerwonak i Poznań substations is at present stage aimed at the rationalisation of the control process and an aid in limiting occurrence of undesirable states within the substations included into the control process.
MOROŃ W., BĘBENEK Z., ŻELKOWSKI J.
Grinding Ability of Coals and Coal Mixtures
Energetyka 2004, No. 10, p. 613, 11 figs, 2 tabs, 5 refs
The grinding ability is a parameter concerning individual features of hard coals and brown coals (lignite). It is dependent on coal petrographic composition, composition of the mineral substance and metamorphism grade. So far there is no one, full standard enabling to classify coals and their mixtures in certain and unequivocal manner according to their grinding ability. Within the power industry the most common test standard is the Hardgove's test. As an alternative investigation method of the coal grinding ability can be treated Clausthal Mahlbarkeit Test CMT [2, 3] elaborated by the Institute of Energy Conversion Techniques and Combustion Technology in Clausthal Technical University (Germany).