GABRYŚ H. L.
Polish Power Industry 2004.
First Half of the Year - Results.
Finances, Costs, Indices
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 755, 4 figs
For economic entities of Polish power industry first half of the 2004 year was better than first half of the previous year, not only with regard to generation and sale of electric energy, but also with regard to finance results. Difference of economic results of economic sub-sectors, as well as entities in the sub-sectors is still considerable. It arises in less grade from management effectiveness but more from past conditions (long term contracts, tariffs, costs).
Conditions for Bids on the Electric Energy Transmission through Polish Borders
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 757, 1 tab., 6 figs, 6 refs
Market management methods of transmission restraints of electric energy enable allocation of restrained transmission abilities to entities giving them the greatest value. Localisation of the bid office abroad (in Prague) places Polish participants of the market in harder situation. As an alternative can be collection of the tenders and account settling the bids by domestic operators which will be obliged to co-ordinate their actions and account settle each other via the central bid office.
On Phenomenon of Lvov Technical University - Mother of Polish Technical Universities. 160th Anniversary of Creation (1844-2004)
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 762
Should be expected Polish power market expansion without changes in management structure of transmission and distribution network operation?
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 771 (IASE Bulletin p. 1), 3 refs
Presented are experts' opinions on consequences resulting from market mechanisms for management structures of electric power operation. The risk related to monopoly strategy of PSE (Polish Power Grid Company) capital group is defined.
Dispersed Generation as Reliability Increase Factor of Electric Energy Supply for Consumers
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 775 (IASE Bulletin p. 5), 25 refs
Deregulation of the power sector makes the use of distributed generation (DG) a viable solution influencing reliability, risk and energy costs. Standby generators - for instance - once installed only for the case of outages may play now the role of spinning reserve, source of premium or peak power as well as means for satisfying customer reliability needs. The DG can have a positive influence on the power system reliability. It enables faster restoration the power system after blackout, improves supply reliability for the customers and reduces severity of voltage sags. However, the utility cannot assume that the DG automatically improves system reliability. Actions may be proved necessary in order to ensure not worsened reliability in some system areas.
MISIOREK A., WERON R.
Modelling According to Seasons and Forecasting Electricity Demand
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 780 (IASE Bulletin p. 10), 2 tabs,
12 figs, 17 refs
In this paper two statistical approaches to load forecasting are analyzed. In both of them electricity load as a sum of two components - a deterministic one (representing load seasonal character) and a stochastic (representing noise) is modeled. They differ in the choice of the reduction method of load seasonal character. Model A utilizes differentiating, while Model Buses recently developed seasonal volatility technique. In both models the stochastic component is described by ARMA time series. Models are tested with use of time series process of system-wide loads from the California power market and compared with the official forecast of the California System Operator (CAISO). It turns out that in the presence of an exchange driven deregulated market a simple model, that does not incorporate external variables, is capable to model electricity load better than CAISO.
Demand Elasticity in Electricity Market
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 786 (IASE Bulletin p. 16), 4 figs, 5 refs
The stress is put on demand curve modelling and price elasticity analyse. A good estimation of the price elasticity makes to be possible accurate estimates of the effect of price changes on total revenue and makes accurate calculations of the point, where companies reach maximal total revenue.
Revealing Illegal Electricity Consumption on the Base of Data from Electricity Registering Meters of Individual Consumers
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 788 (IASE Bulletin p. 18), 4 figs
A methodology of revealing illegal consumption of electric energy by individual consumers can be worked out according to defined algorithm. The programme can enable to subtract energy consumed by energy meters (trade losses) from the value of the balance difference. Detection of increase of the balance difference arising from illegal consumption will then be easier than up to date. It can be additionally counted how great will be the balance difference, when suspected energy meter consumes such energy as earlier.
TRZESZCZYŃSKI J., BIAŁEK S.
Monitoring of Mechanical and Thermal Equipment Vitality in CHP Stations
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 791 (Pro Novum Bulletin p. 7), 7 figs, 6 refs
Process of making proper decisions in the field of management of CHP station assets requires well organised management on the base of the knowledge on technical state of equipment. The system should assure adequate integration of information among others in the field of overhaul and operational diagnostics. It is very important to have such a tool to day, when organisational changes in the power industry cause that management departments employing less specialists have considerable greater duties than previous existed departments of overhaul preparing and accomplishing. Knowledge on technical state of equipment should be a substantial part of each management system of the CHP station. Without such a system it is hard to imagine rational reduction of overhaul expenses, especially in the case of long operated equipment - a majority of CHP station equipment.
E. ZBROIŃSKA-SZCZECHURA, J. DOBOSIEWICZ
Failures and Diagnostics of Heat Exchangers in CHP Stations
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 796 (Pro Novum Bulletin p. 12), 1 tab.,
14 figs, 7 refs
Discussed are reasons of failures of the pipe cartridges in water-steam and water-water heat exchangers Character of the failures in dependence on number of operation hours and operation conditions is described. Given is approximate choice of material for pipes in dependence on operation conditions and some chemical parameters.
A. ŚLIWA, P. GAWRON
Chosen Technical Problems of Water-Steam and Heating Systems in CHP Stations
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 801 (Pro Novum Bulletin p. 17), 2 tabs,
14 figs, 6 refs
CHP stations are the main source of the heat for cities, greater towns and some factories. The heat is delivered as the hot water and some times as the steam. Technical problems of operation of water-steam and heating systems consist in corrosion processes occurring in these systems. Corrosion is a reason of many failures occurring in equipment generating the heat (steam and water boilers) and in heat exchangers, as in heating grids as well. Failures of heating pipelines and connected with them heating water losses are especially the reason of economic losses born by CHP stations. Chosen technical and operational problems of the water-steam and heating systems in the CHP stations are discussed in the paper. Presented are technological possibilities in the field of conditioning feed water for equipment in heating circles in order to react against the corrosion processes occurring in these systems.
Defining Technical State of Sliding Bearings
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 805 (Pro Novum Bulletin p. 21),
13 figs, 8 refs
Vibrations as an information carrier about baring technical state are used in the slide bearing diagnostics at present. However, in many cases this information is not enough, because self exciting vibrations arising in the bearing are caused by many factors. A genuine analysis can be made after visual inspection of the bearing when the reason of bearing incorrect operation can be defined. A good method is an analysis of the bearing state on the base of temperature in the oil film or temperature in various places of the bearing shell (along the circumference).
Use of Real Time Technology in Wind Power Stations
Energetyka 2004, No. 12, p. 815, 1 tab., 1 fig., 5 refs
A continuous progress in the field of Wind power is observed. The wind power is considered more and more frequently as being not foreseen branch of the power industry, but it becomes an integral element many investment processes. The wind power takes a substantial place in many investigation programmes of European Union. It is uncomfortable that in Poland the progress in this field of the power industry is a subject of observation only.